Pilot training is expensive and highly competitive, but the role of a pilot is a challenging and rewarding career, full of responsibility while travelling the world
As an airline pilot, you'll fly passengers or cargo on long or short-haul flights for leisure, business or commercial purposes.
The aircraft is typically operated by two pilots; one will be the captain who is the pilot in command, while the other will be the supporting first officer. Pilots usually take turns to fly the plane to avoid fatigue, with one operating the controls, while the other speaks to air traffic control and completes the paperwork.
In some instances, such as long-haul flights, there may be three or four pilots on board so that each can take the necessary breaks from flying.
The captain has overall responsibility for the safe and efficient operation of the aircraft and the safety of crew and passengers.
You'll face heavy responsibility and personal commitment. You have to pass stringent training courses, followed by recurrent training every six months, in order to maintain the relevant licence required for the job.
You'll need to:
- make sure all information on the route, weather, passengers and aircraft is received
- use that information to create a flight plan, which details the altitude for the flight, route to be taken and amount of fuel required
- ensure the fuel levels balance safety with economy and supervise the loading and fuelling of the aircraft
- make sure all safety systems are working properly
- brief the cabin crew before the flight and maintain regular contact throughout the flight
- carry out pre-flight checks on the navigation and operating systems
- communicate with air traffic control before take-off and during flight and landing
- ensure noise regulations are followed during take-off and landing
- understand and interpret data from instruments and controls
- make regular checks on the aircraft's technical performance and position, on weather conditions and air traffic during flight
- communicate with passengers using the public address system
- react quickly and appropriately to environmental changes and emergencies
- update the aircraft logbook and write a report at the end of the flight, noting any incidents or problems with the aircraft.
Salaries depend on the airline, the type of aircraft you're flying and your experience.
- Starting salaries for newly qualified first officers, working for a small operation, may be around £24,000. Starting salaries in larger companies can reach £28,000.
- Salaries for more experienced pilots can range from £36,000 to £48,000 in a first officer role.
- The starting salary for a captain with a medium-sized airline may range from £54,000 to £75,000. Those employed by major operators can earn £97,000 to more than £140,000.
Some companies run apprenticeship schemes for fully-trained pilots looking for their first job, where salaries may be lower but further training will be paid for by the company. Starting salaries may be higher in other companies, but you'll be required to fund the additional training yourself.
A pilot's salary is often incremental, rising with each year of service with the company. Benefits usually include a pension scheme, various allowances and discounted travel.
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
Expect to work unusual hours as being a pilot is not a 9am to 5pm job. The length of a working day varies depending on the company and route, but can range from three to twelve hours. Start times will often differ depending on the route, sometimes beginning in the early morning and sometimes late at night.
What to expect
- You'll often be on standby so you'll need to live near the airport where you're based to get there at relatively short notice.
- If you work for a short-haul airline, you'll generally receive your shifts a month or two in advance. This results in a more stable work/life balance.
- If you're a long-haul airline pilot you'll spend greater periods of time away from home, flying long distances. You'll need to be able to adjust to different time zones and may regularly stay overnight at your destinations.
- Pilots are restricted to 900 flying hours per year. On scheduled airlines the workload is spread evenly throughout the year, while on charter airlines the summer months are busier than the winter months.
- The majority of commercial airline pilots are men, but more women are now entering the profession.
- Most of your time is spent sitting in the cockpit of the aircraft, and the majority of cockpits are designed with comfort in mind. If you're a long-haul pilot you may suffer tiredness, particularly if you're flying either eastwards or westwards through different time zones. On long-haul flights, there are often bunks on the aircraft where you can take a short nap.
- The role requires a lot of work and dedication - you're required to pass certain tests every six months, so must carry out the necessary study. You also have to pass a medical every year.
To begin training as a pilot, you'll need a minimum of five GCSEs and two A-levels. The training requires a good level of understanding of maths and physics and so any qualifications that demonstrate this may be an advantage.
A degree or postgraduate qualification is not required, although some people may choose to take one to make them stand out from the crowd.
Related degrees are available, for example Buckinghamshire New University offers a BSc (Hons) in Air Transport with Commercial Pilot Training, but these aren't essential to become an airline pilot and costs for the flight training are on top of the normal degree costs.
There are other degrees, such as aviation management, aviation technology and aircraft engineering, which are combined with pilot studies.
These courses can help start you off in flying as they typically cover the theoretical work you'll need for a private pilot's licence. Flying lessons may be available but they'll be at an additional cost.
In order to work as an airline (commercial) pilot you must hold an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL). This qualification is known as a 'frozen ATPL' and becomes 'unfrozen' when a certain number of hours and experience have been achieved.
It's important, when considering routes into the career, that you choose the right one for you. The two main ways to achieve an ATPL are as follows:
- Integrated course - this is an intensive, full-time course, which takes around 18 months to complete. The course is carried out with a flight training provider and is a mixture of classroom theory work and practical flying. You don't need any previous experience for this route, as the training providers take students from zero hours of flying up to the required amount for the ATPL. Costs for this route are expensive and typically range from £80,000 to £90,000.
- Modular training - this is offered by the same training providers and covers the same topics and examinations as the integrated route but can be carried out in chunks, allowing you to complete sections as you can afford them and work in between if needed. The theory side of the course can be completed as either a full-time classroom course or as a distance-learning course so you can work at the same time. The modular training may be more appealing if you can't afford the more expensive integrated course. Check the requirements for entry onto the modular route, as you may need to hold a private pilot licence and have completed 150 hours of flying before you can start the practical flying aspect of the course. Although a cheaper option, the modular route is still expensive and involves more self-study.
Find out more about training as a pilot and get a full list of approved training providers from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) Approved Courses of Flight and Ground Training.
Full or part sponsorship from an airline (which pays for your training) is sometimes available, but usually only when the aviation industry is doing well and there is a high demand for pilots. Competition is extremely fierce for sponsorship opportunities.
It's highly recommended that, before you commit to any training and costs, you take the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) Class One Medical. It's a requirement that all airline pilots pass this medical and, if you don't, you won't be able to complete the training to achieve the ATPL.
The Honourable Company of Air Pilots runs aptitude tests, which are useful if you have little or no flying experience to see if you may be suited to a career as a pilot. Information on how to register for one of these is available at Air Pilots: Aptitude Tests.
If you train, or have trained, as a pilot in the RAF, Navy or Army, you can become a commercial airline pilot. To do so, you need to complete a civil aviation course and gain a conversion qualification.
You'll need to show:
- an understanding of maths and physics
- an ability to understand technical information, as pilots need to know how their aircraft works
- excellent spatial awareness and coordination
- good communication skills
- teamwork skills
- the ability to think quickly and make decisions in difficult situations
- the capacity to remain calm under pressure
- discipline, self-confidence and commitment
- leadership skills, with the ability to give clear commands to cabin crew and passengers.
There are many airline companies employing pilots in the UK, one of the biggest being British Airways. Others include:
- scheduled airlines, e.g. easyJet, Flybe, Jet2, Ryanair
- chartered airlines, e.g. TUI Group
- freight airlines, e.g. TNT, DHL.
General aviation is the largest sector and includes flying schools, companies operating their own aircraft and air taxi operators.
The airline industry predicts a global shortage of pilots in the future, which should increase your job prospects. However, there may not be a constant supply of jobs in the airline industry - airlines would rather not recruit at all than recruit someone who isn't suitable.
The industry is competitive and pilots can find it takes time to secure their first job as a commercial pilot. Newly qualified pilots may need to look outside the UK to find work.
Networking with those already in the industry can be helpful in securing positions.
Look for job vacancies at:
You can also check the websites of individual airlines.
Specialist aviation recruitment companies include:
Advertisements also appear in trade magazines, and flight training schools are often notified of vacancies.
Once you've secured a job with an airline, you'll complete a type-rating course on a company aircraft, which then allows you to fly that particular type of plane.
Some companies will cover the cost of the type-rating or may pay a lower wage to compensate for it. Others will expect you to pay the additional cost, which could be around £20,000 to £30,000 depending on the aircraft. They may offer a payment scheme to help with this.
The type-rating course may take place at your designated base (where you'll usually fly from), at a different UK airport or at an overseas airport if the airline company has international training bases. If you move to a different aircraft in the future, you'll need to complete another type-rating.
As a newly qualified first officer you'll work alongside a captain, usually on short-haul flights to provide you with experience of take-offs and landings.
Once you've achieved 1,500 hours of flying time (500 of that must be in a plane which requires more than one crew to operate it), your ATPL will become 'unfrozen' and you'll be issued with a full ATPL. Once you have achieved this, you can progress to the role of captain.
All pilots have to pass certain examinations every six months in order to keep their licence, so it's important that you take control of your studies and ensure you are up to speed with the necessary information.
It's also a good idea to keep up to date with any developments in new instruments or technology relating to aviation.
You'll need to pass a medical every six to twelve months, depending on your age.
You'll usually start with an airline as a first officer, where you'll be second-in-command on the aircraft. The captain has the overall responsibility for the flight and safety of the passengers and crew, but shares tasks with the first officer.
Limitations are placed on newly qualified first officers in relation to the weather you can fly in and the airports you can fly to. These limitations are lifted as you gain experience. After you have gained enough experience and flying hours you can progress to the role of a senior first officer.
After gaining further substantial experience, senior first officers can apply for positions as a captain.
In order to gain a job as a captain, you need to complete an intensive training course. Promotion to captaincy might occur more quickly in a fast-growing budget airline than in a larger, more static organisation.
As a captain, you could go on to train new pilots but this involves spending more time in simulators rather than actually flying planes, which you may not want. Alternatively, you may take on an examining role.
You may opt to progress your career by flying a larger aircraft rather than becoming a captain. This will usually involve operating long-haul routes. In some instances you may have to move airlines to do this, as some only cover short-haul flights.
Pilots may move into office-based management roles and could combine this with some active flying time too.
A small number move into senior positions within the wider industry as flight operations inspectors for the CAA or become specialised air accident investigators.