Illustrators create still drawings and images to communicate stories, messages or ideas, used in advertisements, books, magazines, packaging, greeting cards and newspapers

As an illustrator, you'll work to commercial briefs to inform, persuade or entertain a client's intended audience, adjusting the mood and style of images accordingly.

Many illustrators specialise in a particular design medium, such as drawing, photography or digital illustration.

This is typically a freelance role, so most illustrators are self-employed.

Types of illustrator

Areas of work include:

  • advertising - posters, storyboards, press
  • publishing - books
  • corporate work - brochures, catalogues
  • editorial - magazines, newspapers and comics
  • fashion - forecasting
  • merchandising - greetings cards, calendars, t-shirts and ceramics
  • multimedia - TV, film, computer games, websites, apps and animation.

Specialist areas include scientific, technical and medical illustration. In these fields, illustrations showing new products, processes or techniques are created for text and reference books. For more information on these types of roles see medical illustrator.


As an illustrator, you'll need to:

  • liaise with clients, editors and authors in order to understand and interpret their business needs
  • gain knowledge of appropriate styles
  • negotiate pricing and deadlines
  • analyse a brief's specification and the text to be illustrated, as well as research sources
  • think imaginatively and creatively to produce new ideas
  • create images and designs by using the traditional hand skills of drawing and painting, alongside other techniques, to meet design briefs
  • use computer-aided design (CAD) packages to scan images and change size, colours and other elements
  • provide roughs for approval
  • redefine a brief through further consultation with the client to include new ideas or text as appropriate
  • run your business, when working freelance
  • speculatively approach potential commissioners to seek new sources of work
  • work within a set timescale, often to tight deadlines
  • create original pieces for self-promotion
  • research appropriate galleries to find suitable venues to exhibit work.


Most illustrators work on a freelance basis, so income figures are hard to estimate. Prices vary greatly depending on the client and usage of the artwork.

You can find illustration and cartoon rates for magazines, newspapers, book covers and PR material at Freelance Fees Guide. Fees will vary and negotiation of fee levels is an important part of being a freelance creator.

If you're a member of the Association of Illustrators (AOI), you can access a pricing calculator in addition to a wealth of information on pricing basics, how to calculate a fee and negotiating pricing.

  • Income for illustrators starting out will vary as income will depend upon the number of commissions from clients and the level of fees achieved for each commission. Illustrators can also work entrepreneurially, making their own products to sell
  • Income should rise with experience.
  • Well-established illustrators may earn up to £40,000 or more.

Illustrators will generally be freelance, as salaried roles for illustrators are not common. If you work with an agent, illustration agencies take between 25-35% commission, while literary agents take 15%. Some illustrators also sell work through stock houses, which take a substantial commission.

Income figures are intended as a guide only.

Working hours

To establish and maintain your reputation, you must keep to deadlines. This may mean working long hours, weekends and/or evenings to deliver a brief.

What to expect

  • Design studios occasionally employ illustrators on a permanent basis, but the majority of illustrators are freelance, working from home or a small studio and negotiating sales via an agent or directly with clients.
  • Some illustrators soon discover a market for their talents and so receive many commissions, while others may have many rejections before securing work. Your workload could fluctuate, from no commissions to too many.
  • Pay may be low and irregular, according to the state of the market. Earnings during the first years may be patchy and many illustrators take on additional part-time jobs.
  • Jobs are available in most areas but proximity to a city is an advantage, especially for illustrators without an agent.
  • There will sometimes be travel within a working day to meet clients, but absence from home at night and overseas work or travel are uncommon.


Although this area of work is open to all graduates, the following subjects may increase your chances:

  • fashion
  • fine art
  • graphic design and illustration
  • printmaking
  • visual art.

Entry without a degree, HND or foundation degree is possible.

While you don't need a pre-entry postgraduate qualification, a postgraduate diploma or MA in graphic design or illustration may be advantageous - especially if you're interested in teaching. Search for postgraduate courses in illustration.

Qualifications and subject of study are far less important than a talent for illustration, promotional skills and the ideas contained in your portfolio.

If you don't have any published work yet, you should create a portfolio demonstrating your ability to work to a brief. This might include designs for a book cover, a set of illustrations for a well-known book, a series of greetings cards, CD covers or illustrations for a car manual.


To embark on a career as an illustrator, you need:

  • the ability to market your skills and promote your work
  • determination
  • professionalism
  • imagination
  • knowledge of computer-aided design (CAD) techniques and printing processes, including computer graphics
  • research skills
  • the capacity to produce work in a variety of multimedia formats.


Most illustrators work as self-employed freelance artists, although areas such as trend forecasting (fashion) and computer games companies offer a limited number of opportunities for full-time employment.

 To secure commissions, you'll need to promote your work to art directors, publishing editors and design studio managers. Organise an appointment to show your (targeted) portfolio or picture library to clients who are likely to use your work and leave a business card or send samples of your work in advance.

Identify potential clients using resources such as the:

  • Publishers Association member directory
  • The Publishing Directory - listings of UK publishing commissioners (AOI)
  • UK Children's Books - publishers
  • Writers' and Artists' Yearbook

Many illustrators use agents to secure commissions. They will look at your portfolio, advise clients and try to secure work for you, although this will be at a cost - a percentage of your fee.

Lists of agents are available from the AOI.

Investigate and take advantage of business start-up schemes to set up a studio and establish sound working practices. Join the AOI or a local group. Develop necessary business and management skills by researching or taking short courses, many of which are free.

It may also be possible to advertise your work directly via directories such as the Creative Review directory.

Advertising agencies and design consultancies can provide lucrative work. Corporate communications remains a viable market for illustration, although it's a competitive area and some firms will use in-house design solutions to keep costs low, rather than turning to freelancers.

Another significant market is the children's book industry, which can be especially lucrative and satisfying if you have a talent for writing as well as illustrating. For exclusive interviews with industry professionals see

Other markets include:

  • animated commercials, animated television shows and short films
  • billboards
  • film posters
  • fine art posters
  • government information services (including health and education)
  • greetings cards
  • packaging.

Look for opportunities at:

Illustrators can also be represented by specialist illustration agencies such as Folio illustration agency and the Central Illustration Agency.

Professional development

If you gain a good honours degree, you may choose to undertake further study at postgraduate level before starting full-time work. Courses last from one to three years and may be followed part time while you're developing freelance work.

Most postgraduate degrees include a series of studio-based modules, self-directed learning and individual research, as well as professional practice.

Studying at postgraduate level may offer the opportunity to specialise in areas such as:

  • children's book illustration
  • medical illustration
  • sequential design and illustration.

Evening classes, competitions and workshops, such as those offered by D&AD, are a great way of keeping your portfolio up to date and varied. They may also potentially generate extra exposure.

Membership of the AOI is useful and provides members with access to a range of resources and events to help build their business. They also run a mentoring scheme for illustrators in the first three years of their career.

It's useful to consider part-time training to update your skills in using computer-aided design (CAD) packages, such as Adobe InDesign, Illustrator, Photoshop and QuarkXPress. This may help generate more work. A good knowledge of digital media and web marketing skills is also helpful.

Your business skills are as important as your creative skills. Short self-employment courses can be useful for understanding all aspects of business and marketing.

Career prospects

On average, it takes illustrators around five or six years to build a reputation and become established in the industry.

Setting up as a freelance illustrator is risky so you may decide to build up contacts and clients gradually, while doing other paid work.

Most illustrators remain as freelance illustrators and may enjoy a highly successful career. Some will successfully combine illustration with teaching. Others may progress from freelance illustrator to art director with a firm of publishers, and a small number may work as agents for other illustrators.

The AOI is staffed by practising illustrators and provides help and advice to its members, including advice on career development issues.

As a member, you'll receive a regular newsletter, the opportunity to attend seminars on useful issues, help with your portfolio, and advice on invoicing and pricing. There is also an online discussion board covering all areas of practice. You'll also be included in their directory of members, alongside examples of your work, which can be a good source of future commissions.

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