A make-up artist ensures that models, performers and presenters have suitable make-up and hairstyles before they appear in front of cameras or an audience.
This may be in a variety of settings, including:
- live music;
- photographic shoots.
Make-up artists interpret the make-up requirements of clients to produce both a creative and technically accurate visual representation. This may involve very basic make-up for a TV presenter through to more complex period make-up or special effects.
The work involves creating images and characters through the medium of make-up, hairstyles and prosthetics according to a brief.
Depending on the nature of the job, make-up artists work alone, as assistants to a more senior colleague or as part of a make-up design team.
Typical work activities include:
- communicating with clients to clarify visual requirements;
- production study, reading scripts to ascertain the materials and the look required, budget implications and identifying areas where research is required;
- producing and sketching design ideas for hairstyles and make-up;
- ensuring continuity in hair and make-up and liaising with other members of the design team to ensure the overall look/effect is consistent and coherent;
- demonstrating and implementing a practical understanding of lighting, the photographic process, colours and the impact of special effects/make-up processes on the skin;
- ensuring that appropriate action is taken to minimise unpleasant side effects from the use of specialist make-up/hairdressing techniques;
- maintaining awareness of health and safety issues and legislation;
- casting facial and body moulds and sculpting latex foam, known as prosthetics;
- fitting and maintaining wigs, hairpieces and prosthetics;
- maintaining an up-to-date knowledge of available make-up and beauty products;
- sourcing, budgeting and ordering materials and equipment from specialist suppliers;
- time management, knowing how long a subject will take to be made-up;
- working quickly and accurately in time-pressured conditions;
- taking detailed notes and photographs of work, maintaining an up-to-date portfolio of work.
The recommended industry minimum rates for film and television work are set by the Producers Alliance for Cinema and Television (PACT) and the Broadcasting Entertainment Cinematograph and Theatre Union (BECTU).
Trainees should receive no less than the national minimum wage or the London living wage.
A make-up/hair assistant can charge rates of around £200 for a 10-hour day whereas make-up designers can charge in the region of £300. These rates are for drama and light entertainment television productions and low-budget feature films.
Rates are negotiable and individuals who are well regarded in the industry are in great demand and are paid well above the rates listed.
Many make-up artists initially work for free or for a small fee on low-budget productions or editorial shoots, to build up a record of published work and gain experience.
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
A typical working day includes long and unsocial hours. Shifts and weekend work are common. Working on a film or television project means a make-up artist is required to be on set before filming commences and to remain on set throughout filming in order to re-apply make-up. Advance fittings are often required. Working as part of a production team is integral to the role.
What to expect
- The environment varies from indoor dressing rooms to hot studios to freezing-cold outdoor locations. The work is physically demanding and requires great concentration. Most make-up artists carry around their own equipment.
- The majority of make-up artists work on a self-employed/freelance basis. Freelancing is often an essential pre-requisite for the very limited number of permanent jobs. Professionals are contracted for projects, either directly or through an agent.
- Potential employers will be located mainly in cities, particularly those with independent regional TV companies. Most opportunities are in the London area.
- Travel within a working day, periodic relocation, absence from home at night and overseas work or travel is frequent. Make-up artists may travel overseas for film work on location.
- Word of mouth, networking and speculative CVs are a common method of generating work. Many make-up artists use a photographic portfolio demonstrating the wide range of skills they offer.
- Competition is tough and professionals are often employed on reputation and popularity. A good starting point is to think of the contacts made during study, particularly through any work experience placements.
- Good interpersonal and self-promotion skills are essential. Media directories help identify companies to target with a speculative CV or personal call. Professional journals are a good source of adverts as well as information on who and what is happening in the industry.
- For identifying training courses, production companies and media groups see Creative Skillset: The Sector Skills Council for the Creative Industries.
- Information on industry developments and remuneration guidelines can be found at the Broadcasting Entertainment Cinematograph and Theatre Union (BECTU).
Although this area of work is open to all graduates and diplomates, the following subjects may increase your chances:
- creative/performing arts;
- make-up artistry;
- fine art/visual art;
- history of art;
- fashion and textile/costume design;
- graphic design/illustration;
- drama/theatre studies.
Traditionally, academic qualifications are not as important as creative and practical skills. It's possible to become a make-up artist without a degree or HND.
However, entrance is generally becoming formalised and candidates will often undertake a number of specialist HNDs in make-up artistry as a precursor to freelance industry experience/traineeships.
Several colleges and universities have a variety of two-year foundation degrees as well as a three-year BAs in areas including:
- hair, make-up and prosthetics for performance;
- special effects make-up design for TV, film and theatre;
- media make-up and character design;
- fashion, theatrical and media hair and make-up.
NVQs in relevant subjects are also acceptable, such as:
- beauty therapy;
- media and theatrical make-up.
A pre-entry postgraduate qualification is not needed.
Regional arts councils are more general sites that provide useful links to media organisations and their websites, these include:
You will need to show:
- theoretical interest;
- an understanding of period and current fashion;
- excellent practical make-up and technical skills.
Most people entering this field have taken a course in both make-up and hairdressing, as the job requires that you're multi-skilled. An understanding of film and video production techniques, camera and lighting processes, styles of literature, performance and dramatisation may also be important.
Relevant experience is desirable, like working backstage at amateur dramatic productions or working in a beauty or hair salon, plus any work placements or relevant unpaid work.
Job shadowing/work experience assisting a make-up artist gives insight, develops your portfolio, helps to build a network of contacts and demonstrates your commitment. Observation is one of the best ways to learn skills and techniques.
There are several industries that regularly employ make-up artists. Employers include:
- network and independent television;
- film, video and advertising/commercial companies;
- commercial and fashion photographers and, on a less regular basis, portrait photographers;
- the wedding industry, for bridal make-up;
- the fashion industry, for both haute couture and retail outlet fashion shows;
- cosmetic companies and designer hairdressing salons, particularly for demonstrations or hairdressing competitions;
- large theatres, some of which may offer a limited number of permanent positions, other theatres contract freelance artists to run make-up workshops for performers prior to new productions;
- education institutions, who employ make-up artists as teachers on established/certificated make-up courses, other education institutions occasionally employ make-up artists to run make-up workshops for students as part of the practical performance element of their drama/theatrical studies;
- the medical profession, where a make-up artist may work with patients following injury or surgery.
However, as most make-up artists are self-employed, they normally bid for work on a project-by-project basis.
Look for job vacancies at:
Many people working in the media obtain work by advertising through media directories such as:
Diary services and agencies are a popular method of linking with employers, but they often only include individuals with experience.
Make-up artists with a portfolio of experience may make speculative applications to production companies or approach make-up directors directly. For this, it may be helpful to produce a website to showcase examples of work.
Informal training is just as important as formal qualifications. Consequently, industry experience, whether paid or unpaid, is vital to professional development and ability to get work.
Given the predominance of freelance work, training is often on the job, with individuals taking responsibility for their own continuing professional development (CPD).
Many make-up artists believe that their on-the-job training and experience is just as important as their professional training, if not more so.
Many artists and designers wish to enhance or consolidate existing skills in order to open up new areas of expertise or to produce better quality work within their own specialist area.
Further study provides the opportunity to experiment, diversify or obtain the specialist knowledge required. There are limited training opportunities, mainly based in commercial schools, for which you have to pay a fee.
Make-up artists may undertake short courses in areas they wish to specialise in, such as special effects.
Make-up artists can join the National Association of Screen Make-up Artists and Hairdressers (NASMAH) and take advantage of discounted training courses, events and information.
For information on training and funding opportunities see Creative Skillset: The Sector Skills Council for the Creative Industries.
Further training decisions are usually based on the review of a work portfolio, technical skills gained and the industry experience of tutors.
Career development usually means securing more temporary contracts and demanding higher rates of pay, dependent on experience, networking specialist area, and popularity. Few permanent positions exist.
There is no defined progression route and the freelance nature of the profession means that individuals may move between trainee make-up assistant, make-up artist, chief/key make-up artist and designer roles, depending on their experience and confidence within a sector.
Consequently a make-up artist may charge different rates for different jobs.
Decisions as to the right time to request higher rates of pay and bid for project work in a more senior role are very much based on an individual's own sense of confidence and how much experience and expertise they feel they have to offer in the labour market.
Ambitious individuals aim towards make-up director, but many freelance artists who do not reach this position still enjoy an autonomous and lucrative career.
A make-up artist may become a specialist in one aspect of the job, such as a wig or prosthetics specialist, body painting or making contact lenses or teeth.