If you enjoy being at the forefront of technology, have an eye for detail and excellent analytical skills, then consider a career as a patent examiner

As a patent examiner you'll use your technical and legal skills to assess applications for patents, which are granted to applicants to give them the right to stop other people using, selling or making their inventions.

Working for either the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) or the European Patent Office (EPO), you'll check that the invention is new, clear and inventive, not merely an adjustment to something which already exists, by carrying out searches using UK and foreign patent specifications, technical literature and databases.


As a patent examiner, you'll need to:

  • investigate each application to ascertain that the invention is described clearly and in such a way that a skilled person would be able to use it;
  • examine the invention from a technical standpoint;
  • search through earlier publications, technical literature and online databases of UK and foreign patent specifications to make sure that the application is new;
  • consider legal matters affecting acceptability and entitlement to the monopoly claimed by the applicant;
  • gather information on which to base a judgement as to the originality of the invention;
  • prepare an initial report and give the results of the search to the applicant or, more usually, a patent attorney, who then decides whether to proceed to the second stage of the application;
  • make a final decision as to the novelty of the invention, which is written in a final report;
  • discuss and negotiate with the applicant and patent attorney to resolve any matters raised in the final report;
  • maintain up-to-date knowledge of developments through study and visits to laboratories, factories, exhibitions and seminars.

Patent examiners at the EPO may also be involved in opposition procedures, which occur when a European patent has been granted and is then opposed by a third party (usually a competitor).


  • Salaries for associate patent officers (trainees) at the IPO start at £27,225, including a £3,000 recruitment and retention allowance.
  • A newly promoted patent examiner currently earns £35,800. A senior patent examiner will earn a salary starting at £53,191 per annum. More senior posts are paid at Senior Civil Servant rates.
  • Salaries for patent examiners at the EPO follow a grading system and vary depending on your experience. Patent examiner basic monthly salaries (grades 7 to 10) are around €5,223,18 to €7,441,40.

EPO salaries are subject to an internal tax, rather than national income tax. EPO staff may be entitled to relocation and other benefits. Salaries vary slightly depending on which country you work in.

Income data from IPO and EPO. Figures are intended as a guide only.

Working hours

A standard working week at the IPO is 37 hours. The IPO operates a flexible working system with no core hours, where you can work any time between 5am to 10pm. There are also opportunities to work part time or term time.

The working week at the EPO is 40 hours, and it also operates a flexitime system.

What to expect

  • The work is mainly office-based, with an evenly paced workload.
  • The main IPO office is based in Newport, South Wales, although there is also a small office in London. The EPO has its headquarters in Munich, but also has offices in The Hague, Berlin and Vienna (and a liaison office in Brussels).
  • Self-employment and freelance work is not possible as a patent examiner.
  • You may need to travel to exhibitions, industrial sites and laboratories to update your knowledge.
  • The EPO provides a range of social events, clubs and communities to help relocated staff to feel at home.


To work as a patent examiner for the IPO, you'll need a 2:2 degree or above in a relevant science, engineering, mathematics or computer science subject. Job adverts will state the disciplines that are being recruited, so you'll need to look out for jobs that relate to your area of expertise.

You don't need legal experience before joining the IPO as you will be trained in the relevant legal and practical skills once you're in post.

Entry without a degree may be possible for those with substantial industrial experience.

To work for the EPO, you'll need to be a citizen of one of the member states of the European Patent Organisation, have a Masters degree (or equivalent) in physics, chemistry, engineering or natural sciences, as well as thorough knowledge of one of the three official languages (English, French and German) and the ability to understand the other two. The EPO offers the necessary language training.


You'll need to have:

  • the ability to apply scientific and technical knowledge to the concepts of patent law;
  • excellent analytical and critical skills and an eye for detail;
  • the ability to communicate convincing arguments, justifying the granting or otherwise of a patent, both orally and in writing;
  • negotiation skills;
  • the communication skills to interact with colleagues and applicants to process patent applications efficiently;
  • flexibility of thought and the ability to grasp unfamiliar concepts;
  • self-motivation and a willingness to take responsibility for your own actions;
  • competence in IT, in order to search databases and check the originality of inventions.

Work experience

It's helpful to have relevant industrial experience, but this doesn't need to be related to patents and documentation.

The EPO offers a limited number of three to six-month internships in patent examining to science and engineering graduates. Recruitment takes place annually and you would be tutored by examiners, gaining experience in patent work and other areas of intellectual property.


You'll usually work for either the IPO or the EPO.

The IPO is the UK government body responsible for intellectual property rights, which includes patents, trademarks, registered designs and copyright. It employs around 1,000 staff in Newport and London. There are approximately 400 patent examiners.

The EPO is the executive arm of the European Patent Organisation and provides a uniform application procedure for individual inventors and companies seeking patent protection in up to 40 European countries. It employs almost 7,000 staff from over 30 countries in Munich, The Hague, Berlin and Vienna.

Look for job vacancies at:

The IPO usually hosts an annual graduate recruitment programme, but check with them for details.

Jobs at the EPO are advertised continually, so you'll need to keep checking the jobs page regularly to see which disciplines they're recruiting for.

Professional development

Training at the IPO begins with a month-long series of lectures and seminars on various aspects of intellectual property law and on the basic skills of the examining job. This is followed by a transition period lasting a month and involving working on real cases alongside other newly recruited examiners. On successful completion of the course, you'll join an examination group and will start working on live applications under the supervision of a senior patent examiner. Your supervisor will change every six months for the first two years of your career.

The EPO provides a two-year training programme, which combines classroom learning with tutoring from senior patent examiners, acting as coaches. You'll be working on real patent applications from day one.

Training covers all aspects of patent examination, including the use of computer tools, databases, search methods and procedures used in everyday examining work, as well as providing the opportunity to gain legal and practical expertise. If you're not already proficient in all of the three official languages (English, French and German), training is provided.

Wherever you work, you'll need to keep up to date with the latest research and technical and legal developments throughout your career. This can be done by taking further specialist qualifications in areas such as IP law, or through learning new languages or undertaking technical training to develop skills in new technology. Training can include seminars, courses and visits to companies and trade fairs.

Career prospects

There is a structured career path within the IPO. After two to four years as an associate patent examiner, you can progress to patent examiner. With about five to nine years' experience you can be promoted to senior patent examiner. Promotions at this level are 'non-competitive' so you don't need to wait until there's a vacancy. Promotion occurs when you reach the required level of performance. However, more senior positions, such as deputy director and above, are competitive.

As your career progresses, you will usually develop specialist expertise within a particular area such as biotechnology or electrical engineering, although opportunities may arise to change specialist subject areas. There may also be opportunities to train as a general manager and move to other government offices.

Career progression is determined by merit and seniority at the EPO. Initial appointments are subject to 12 months' probation. Following training, you will have full responsibility for your own work, taking part in opposition work (similar to a tribunal hearing) and eventually being expected to chair such proceedings.

Other possibilities for development include tutoring, training or short-term missions to other countries. Experienced examiners may become managers or members of boards of appeal.