Working as a medical research scientist means you'll be contributing to important developments in the world of medicine

As a medical research scientist, you'll plan and conduct experiments to increase the body of scientific knowledge on topics related to medicine. You may also develop new, or improve existing, drugs, treatments or other medically-related products.

Medical research takes place in higher education institutions, research institutes, hospitals, industry and medical research charities. The level of research is wide ranging from investigating the underlying basis of health or disease, to conducting clinical research and investigating methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human disorders.

Molecular level research may be carried out using appropriate cell and animal models, or human volunteers may be used to study the clinical effects of various factors.


Roles vary depending on the setting, but much of the work is laboratory-based. In general you'll need to:

  • plan and conduct experiments and analyse or interpret the results
  • keep accurate records of work undertaken
  • use specialist computer software to analyse data and to produce diagrammatic representation of results
  • write and submit applications and progress reports to funding bodies that support medical research (outside industry)
  • discuss research progress with other departments, e.g. production and marketing (in industry)
  • constantly consider the profit/loss potential of research products (in industry)
  • collaborate with industry, research institutes, hospitals and academia
  • teach and supervise students (in some higher education roles).

You'll often need to disseminate the results of your work to others, which means you'll:

  • carry out presentations or discussions at team meetings with colleagues
  • prepare presentations and deliver these at national and international scientific conferences
  • write original papers for publication in peer-reviewed medical or scientific journals. In industry, there is usually less pressure to publish.

It's also important to stay in touch with developments and advances in your field and so you'll need to:

  • read relevant scientific literature and journals
  • attend scientific meetings and conferences in order to hear presentations from other researchers and participate in informal discussions with scientists from other parts of the world.


  • If you’re doing a PhD and have been awarded a studentship, it will usually come with a tax-free stipend to help cover living costs. This is currently at least £15,609, although some may be higher particularly if industry funded or if you’re based in London.
  • If you've completed a PhD, you may start on £25,000 to £40,000 a year, depending on your specialist subject and experience.
  • Senior researchers and university professors earn in the region of £50,000 to £75,000 a year or more.

For current details on PhD studentship stipends, see UKRI - Studentships and Doctoral Training.

The majority of academic institutions in the UK have now implemented a single pay spine for all grades of staff. Pay varies according to whether you're leader of your own research group, part of a team of researchers or whether you've secured a lectureship while continuing your research.

Pay is usually higher in industry and the private sector.

Income figures are intended as a guide only.

Working hours

Hours vary depending on the setting and there may be flexibility in start and finish times, especially in academic settings. Due to the nature of experimental work, hours can be irregular and may require some evening or weekend work.

Longer hours are necessary when, for example, grant application deadlines are looming or an important experiment is underway. Overtime is paid in industry but is unusual in academia.

What to expect

  • Work is mainly laboratory-based with some time spent in the office planning and writing up experiments. Some positions may require field work.
  • With career progression, the work becomes more office-based with a focus on writing grant applications, collaborating with other scientists, supervising staff, planning experiments, writing papers for publication and reviewing papers.
  • Care and attention to detail is required as work involves contact with potentially toxic or radioactive materials.
  • Working with animals or animal-derived products, such as embryonic stem cells, may form part of the research, which will be an ethical dilemma for some. See the arguments at Understanding Animal Research .
  • Travel is sometimes required, as you'll often collaborate with other institutions. Some national and international travel is needed for attendance at conferences to present the results of your research. Travel becomes more frequent with career progression.
  • Initiatives are in place in various sectors to encourage equality, inclusion and diversity within medical research. UKRI has equality, diversity and inclusion policies and guidance with the aim to create a dynamic system of research and innovation in the UK.


A good honours degree in a medical or life science subject is required. Relevant subjects include:

  • biochemistry
  • biomedical sciences
  • genetics
  • immunology
  • medical microbiology
  • molecular biology
  • pharmacology
  • physiology.

Many areas of medical research now also look for graduates in chemistry, physics or statistics/bioinformatics, so you can be successful if you have a degree in one of these subjects.

For some graduate level roles, you'll be able to enter with your degree if you also have some laboratory experience, however for others, particularly at a higher level, you'll need to have an MSc or PhD, or be working towards one. Career progression without a PhD (particularly in academia) is likely to be limited.

Direct entry to a research scientist role with an HND or foundation degree only is not possible. With either of these qualifications, you may be able to enter at technician level, but you'll need to take further qualifications to become a medical researcher. Some employers allow you to study while working part time.

Funding is made available to research institutions via the Medical Research Council (MRC). This is then passed on to students in the form of scholarships, bursaries and studentships. Contact the individual institution to find out more about the funding options.


You'll need to show:

  • technical, scientific and numerical skills
  • good written and oral communication skills for report writing and presenting findings
  • genuine enjoyment of the research subject
  • a methodical approach to work with good planning skills
  • tenacity and patience when carrying out experiments
  • the ability to work well in teams and to network and forge links with collaborators
  • problem-solving skills and analytical thinking
  • attention to detail.

Work experience

Laboratory experience and knowledge of the range of techniques used will improve your chances of finding a research appointment. Experience can be achieved through either a sandwich-year placement in industry or vacation work experience in academia or industry.

You could make speculative applications to potential academic supervisors to ask for work experience or shadowing opportunities. You may also want to consider getting experience within both industry and academia so you can see how the different sectors vary and where your preference lies.

Funding for placements and projects may be available through:

Find out more about the different kinds of work experience and internships that are available.


There are various employers in medical research, including:

  • industry (especially pharmaceutical companies)
  • NHS
  • non-governmental and voluntary bodies
  • medical research charities
  • research councils, especially the Medical Research Council (MRC)
  • universities.

Work outside industry is usually funded by the government through the allocation of research funding to universities, research councils and hospitals.

Medical research receives extensive financial support from charitable bodies that fund specific research into their areas of interest.

Opportunities are also available through Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTP). This is a joint project between a graduate, an organisation and a 'knowledge base', such as a university or a research organisation, which allows PhD graduates to apply research in a commercial environment.

Look for job vacancies at:

University websites advertise vacancies too.

Specialist recruitment agencies are used within the scientific community. These include:

Professional development

If you're studying for a PhD while being employed in a medical research post, you'll be supported by a supervisor. Your institution is likely to provide additional training or you can access this through Vitae, which helps to support the professional development of researchers.

You'll need to keep up to date with developments in your field throughout your career and continuing professional development (CPD) is very important for this.

Technical training, either self-taught or from more experienced scientists, will allow you to learn new laboratory techniques. It's also common to visit other labs to be taught techniques that are already established elsewhere.

You'll be expected to attend conferences on a regular basis to hear about scientific advances and new research techniques. On occasion, you'll be required to present your own work.

Training may be more structured in industry and it may be possible for you to develop your own training programme with guidance from a mentor.

Membership of a professional organisation is useful for support throughout your career and to help with CPD. Many professional bodies have their own learning and training schemes and can help with how your record your CPD activities. You can also work towards professional qualifications or chartered status as you gain experience.

Relevant bodies include:

Career prospects

Career structures vary between sectors. In academia, once you've completed your PhD, it's likely you'll enter a postdoctoral position. These are normally short-term contracts of up to three years.

Career progression is related to the success of your research project(s), the quality and quantity of original papers you publish and your success in attracting funding. Building up experience in laboratory specialties can also help. With experience, you can progress to senior research fellow or professor and can one day manage your own team.

You'll usually have to undertake a few short-term contracts before you have a chance of securing a sought-after permanent position in academic science. There are often teaching duties attached to these positions and opportunities are limited with high levels of competition.

Career development tends to be more structured in industry, hospitals or research institutes and involves taking on increased responsibilities, such as supervising and managing projects.

With experience and a successful track record, you can move into senior research and management roles. It's also be possible in some industrial companies to move into other functions, such as production, quality assurance, HR or marketing.

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