Zoologists study animals and their behaviour, including their evolution, anatomy, physiology, behaviour, distribution and classification
As a zoologist, you could be based indoors in a lab, outdoors in the field, or even in remote overseas locations. You'll study species and populations of animals and work with animals out in the field, in captivity or in a laboratory.
You can specialise in a particular area, for example, choosing to work with reptiles and amphibians (herpetologist), mammals (mammologist), birds (ornithologist), fossil remains (paleozoologist) or parasites (parasitologist).
Job titles vary greatly and may include zoological field assistant, field biologist, wildlife biologist, conservation biologist or field assistant.
Types of zoology work
You can work in a range of areas, including:
- conservation of endangered species and habitats
- animal education and welfare
- controlling pests and diseases
- drug development and testing
- improving livestock and crops in agriculture
- teaching and research.
As a zoologist, you'll need to:
- study animals in captivity or in their natural environment
- conduct laboratory and/or field research
- collect, store and prepare specimens for analysis
- identify, record and monitor species of animals
- manage large data sets and use statistical software packages
- use modelling software to predict future scenarios, such as changes in habitats or population numbers
- write scientific reports and issue recommendations
- manage animal care, movement and enclosures
- rehabilitate and release animals back into their natural environment
- identify, monitor and address invasive species and other threats
- use software or equipment, such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), sonographs, terrestrial locomotor activity monitoring systems and video recorders
- work with other professionals and support staff
- keep up to date with relevant research, policies and legislation
- teach in field or research centres
- educate members of the public, which could include children or adults
- supervise volunteers or assistants.
- Starting salaries depend upon the role, the employer and your skills, qualifications and experience and can vary greatly, but are typically in the region of £18,000 to £25,000.
- Zoologists with several years' experience may earn between £25,000 and £30,000.
- Senior zoologists, such as senior researchers or those managing a team may earn up to £45,000+.
Salaries in private industry and other organisations can vary considerably.
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
In an industry, research or higher education zoology role, you'll typically work from 9am to 5pm.
However, hours may vary when conducting field trips or working on research projects. Certain factors may dictate working times, for example, environmental issues like tidal changes and animal activity times such as nocturnal sleep patterns.
In conservation, it's common to work evenings, weekends and public holidays.
There may be some opportunities to work part-time.
What to expect
- When undertaking research in the field, you may be working in isolated locations or areas where there are only basic living conditions or resources, such as limited or no electricity, phone and internet signal.
- Work can be physically tiring and involve working long hours in challenging terrain.
- You may work indoors in a laboratory, or outdoors in various environments such as national parks, zoos, rainforests, woodland, moorland, farmland or coastal areas.
- Some jobs and research positions may require you to travel or live abroad.
- Jobs can often be temporary, for example if you're working on a research project for a specific duration. However, opportunities for permanent positions do exist, such as in higher education teaching.
You'll usually need a degree in a relevant scientific subject like zoology, biology, marine biology or environmental biology.
Some employers look for candidates who have relevant postgraduate qualifications (such as an MSc or PhD), particularly for work that requires specialist knowledge. For research or teaching posts in higher education, you will normally need a PhD.
Zoology is a popular area and competition for roles is often high, so having relevant work experience is essential.
Any training or experience using a piece of software or equipment that is relevant to the role could help you to stand out. The Field Studies Council (FSC) offers some training courses.
You'll need to have:
- research skills, such as a strong understanding of scientific methods and the tools and resources that you need
- good written communication skills for writing scientific reports and creating content for a non-specialist audience
- presentation skills, for engaging specialist and non-specialist audiences
- project management and teamworking skills, which may include working in varied teams, for example, with a science coordinator, rangers, or volunteers
- IT skills when recording, analysing and presenting data and reports
- good numerical reasoning, as you'll need to input data and interpret statistical findings
- attention to detail, as you will need to be observant and pick up on small details to ensure accuracy
- patience and perseverance, as you may have to make observations for prolonged periods of time
- practical skills, for handling animals or using equipment
- the ability to problem solve as some things won't go to plan, when capturing and tagging animals in the wild for example
- organisational skills, to plan the equipment you'll need and how you'll go about conducting your research and managing a varied workload.
Pre-entry work or volunteering experience is necessary as competition for roles is often high. Try to gain experience in the areas you're most interested in. Advertised work experience may be paid or unpaid, but unpaid work experience can be less competitive.
You may also be able to undertake a work placement or period of work shadowing during a vacation period. Some organisations, such as The Zoological Society of London (ZSL), offer internships. Some degree courses offer a sandwich year, where you can work for an organisation and gain valuable skills and experience.
You can volunteer in the UK or overseas. Speak to your volunteering department, visit volunteering databases such as do-it.org or organisations' own websites, such as:
Not all work experience opportunities will be formally advertised. You can make speculative applications for work experience, using a CV and cover letter. If you apply speculatively, it is unlikely that you will be paid.
Find out more about the different kinds of work experience and internships that are available.
You can find roles in zoology in the UK and overseas.
Typical employers include:
- animal and environmental charities
- aquaculture and animal nutrition companies
- chemical, pharmaceutical and petroleum companies
- conservation organisations
- environmental consultancies
- environmental protection agencies
- government agencies and research institutions
- medical research facilities and the health service
- science centres, libraries and museums
- universities and research institutes
- zoos, aquariums and wildlife parks and centres.
No one site advertises all zoology jobs, so you'll need to visit a variety of websites and individual organisations. Below are some examples, but this is by no means exhaustive. Jobs may also be advertised on social networking sites like LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter.
Look for job vacancies at:
- British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) - jobs, work experience and volunteering opportunities
- Eco Careers - environmental jobs in Ireland
- Jobs.ac.uk - for academic and research jobs in education in the UK and overseas
- Zoological Society London (ZSL)
- Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (RZSS)
Many jobs in zoology are not formally advertised, so networking is very important. Talk to university staff as they may be able to offer you some advice or put you in contact with someone employed in the field. Use professional networking sites to build up relevant contacts in advance of graduation. Keep in contact with those you meet through volunteering or work experience.
Where no specific job is advertised, you can make a speculative application to an organisation using a CV and cover letter. Get support from your careers service and, ideally, have your CV and cover letter checked before sending it off.
You may need to put yourself forward and show willingness to take on additional opportunities and responsibilities. You can gain additional skills through training courses, which may be funded by your employer. These may be suggested by your employer, or you may need to seek out your own opportunities.
Some bodies or institutes offer training opportunities, conferences and events, such as The International Society of Zoological Sciences.
There are specific societies for specialist areas of zoology, such as The Mammal Society, which has its own training and events.
Mentoring from a more experienced professional may be something you can arrange through your workplace, or you may have to seek this opportunity out for yourself.
Free downloadable courses are available on programmes, such as R (statistical computing and graphics) and QGIS (an open source geographical information system).
You can specialise in a particular area of zoology and/or increase your skills and knowledge through completion of a postgraduate qualification, such as an MSc or PhD. You may be able to do these on a part-time basis or through distance learning.
Opportunities for progression can generally be more structured in larger organisations. As a zoologist in a university setting, you could expect to start as a research student, while completing your PhD and then move onto a postdoctoral research position (once you've completed your PhD) and progress to become a senior researcher or lecturer, and possibly a professor.
In industry, you may be able to progress towards roles such as senior researcher or onto more managerial roles.
Opportunities may be less structured in other organisations, and you may need to be prepared to travel or change roles to progress. Entry-level roles may be that of zoological assistant or field assistant; after gaining experience you could progress to more senior roles, which could involve managing a team.
More senior roles are less hands-on. It's likely you'll be doing less fieldwork and focusing more on organisation and people management.
You could specialise in a particular area. For example, mammalogists focus on mammals, herpetologists look at reptiles and ornithologists study birds. With experience, you could also move into consultancy.