Art therapists use visual art media to help people who struggle to express their feelings verbally to confront difficult, and often distressing, emotional issues
As an art therapist you'll use art as a medium to enable clients to communicate in a safe environment and to help them reflect on emotional issues and gain confidence and self-awareness.
Clients can include children and adults with:
- emotional and behavioural difficulties
- learning or physical disabilities
- life-limiting conditions
- mental ill health
- neurological conditions
- physical illnesses
- speech and language difficulties.
Therapy may be carried out in group or one-to-one settings.
Those who are referred to an art therapist don't need to have experience of, or be any good at, art.
You may work closely with other healthcare professionals, such as psychologists, speech and language therapists, social workers and occupational therapists, as part of a multidisciplinary team.
Art therapists are also known as art psychotherapists and both job titles are legally protected by the Health & Care Professions Council (HCPC).
As an art therapist, you'll need to:
- assess the needs of your clients by listening and providing guidance
- work creatively with various client groups in a therapeutic setting, ensuring a safe and secure environment
- encourage clients to experiment with a range of art materials such as clay, paint, ink, pastels and paper
- enable clients to explore their artwork and the process they used to create it
- assess and understand your clients' feelings or temperament
- communicate through art and a shared art experience to support your clients and facilitate positive changes in their behaviour, communication and wellbeing
- constructively challenge the behaviour and attitude of your clients
- attend meetings and case conferences to share ideas, expertise and good practice
- keep up to date with administration tasks, such as maintaining records, and writing reports, letters and reviews of assessment and treatment
- maintain art therapy space and materials
- receive support and discuss ideas in individual supervision
- explore opportunities for work where they may not currently exist
- present a case to other professionals on reasons for employing an art therapist
- keep up to date with developments in the profession by attending seminars, lectures, and workshops.
- Jobs in the NHS are usually covered by the Agenda for Change (AfC) Pay Rates consisting of nine pay bands. As a newly qualified art therapist, your starting salary is likely to be £32,306 (band 6), rising up the pay scale to £39,027.
- Experienced NHS art therapists can earn between £40,057 and £45,839 (band 7). NHS senior and principal art therapists can earn salaries ranging from £47,126 to £53,219 (band 8a).
- Fees for arts therapists working on a self-employed, sessional basis are negotiated with the organisation you're undertaking the work for and will vary depending on a range of factors, including your experience. As a guide, they typically range from £50 to £70 per hour for individual sessions, plus £40 per hour for administrative activities such as note writing or attending meetings.
- Fees for 90 minute face-to-face group art therapy sessions typically range from £70 to £90 per hour, plus 30 minutes for setting up, clearing up and writing notes or reports charged at £40 per hour.
Salary levels vary depending on your employer, the sector you work in, your location, clinical experience and whether you work part time or are self-employed.
Self-employed therapists should also take into account other factors such as whether the accommodation they use for art therapy sessions is rented. They must also have their own professional indemnity insurance.
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
Working hours within the NHS are mainly 9am to 5pm. If you work in private practice, your hours may be more varied to fit around your clients and can involve some weekends and evenings.
Opportunities exist for part-time and portfolio working. Many art therapists are self-employed.
What to expect
- Some art therapists divide their working time between the NHS, private practice and teaching, and many combine art therapy with other types of related work.
- The availability of jobs depends on your client group and where you are based. London and the South of England employ the greatest number of art therapists, as well as cities where training courses are based. However, jobs are available in most parts of the UK as key employers include social services, local authorities and the NHS. Art therapists in private practice may take referrals from these organisations, although you'll also have to generate your own work through a range of activities, including networking.
- You may have to travel between employers during the week. You may also have to travel to attend residential courses, seminars and workshops.
- Career breaks are possible but keeping up to date with developments in the profession through attending courses and maintaining established networks is vital.
To practise as an art therapist in the UK you must be registered with the Health & Care Professions Council (HCPC). In order to register, you must successfully complete an HCPC-approved postgraduate qualification in art therapy or art psychotherapy. All UK approved courses lead to a professional qualification and eligibility to apply for registration with the HCPC and membership of the British Association of Art Therapists (BAAT).
You'll usually need a first degree in fine art, visual arts or art and design to get a place on a postgraduate course. However, other graduates with experience of working in health, education or social care may be accepted if they have a commitment to the practice of the visual arts and personal involvement in art making. Relevant degree subjects include:
- occupational therapy
- social work.
Some courses may also accept graduates with degrees in the humanities, social sciences or sciences.
Applicants without a degree may be accepted by some course providers if they have an equivalent professional qualification and significant relevant experience. Entry requirements vary between providers so check with them individually. For an up-to-date list of course providers, search the list of HCPC-approved education and training programmes.
Course providers require you to have experience of artistic practice and will ask to see a portfolio of recent artwork.
Full-time postgraduate courses usually take two years, with part-time courses lasting three years. As part of the training, you'll undertake personal therapy and a clinical placement.
There are a range of introductory and foundation courses available, aimed at those thinking about a career in art therapy. For details, see BAAT - Introduction and Foundation Courses.
All students are subject to a criminal records check.
You'll need to have:
- an interest in, and commitment to, the visual arts
- excellent communication skills
- strong observation and listening skills
- the ability to gain your clients' trust, facilitate learning and encourage participation
- analytical skills in order to assess clients for art therapy and other treatment interventions
- the capacity to empathise with people who may have difficulties in communicating either their feelings or their pain
- the ability to work effectively with individuals and in groups
- creativity and imagination
- planning and organisation skills to manage a caseload of clients
- an understanding of client confidentiality and dealing with sensitive issues
- a flexible and resourceful approach to work
- sensitivity, emotional stability and an ability to recognise your own strengths and weaknesses
- the ability to remain calm in distressing or emotionally charged situations
- business, administration and entrepreneurial skills.
You may need a full driving licence and access to a car.
You'll need to have at least a year's relevant work experience (either paid or voluntary) for entry on to a postgraduate training course. It doesn't have to be art-related but should involve working in a professional capacity with vulnerable people, such as children with learning or behavioural challenges, the elderly, homeless or adults with mental ill health. Relevant settings include health, social services, education, special needs, charities and community/youth centres. This work experience can be done part time, rather than in one full year.
Consider approaching the art therapy departments of NHS trusts, prisons and special hospitals, special needs schools and hospices to see if they provide work experience or work shadowing opportunities. Be aware, however, that art therapy is practised in a confidential setting and so work shadowing may not always be possible.
Previous experience of working on community arts projects is also useful.
Find out more about the different kinds of work experience and internships that are available.
The availability of jobs may depend on organisations gaining funding for particular projects and you may work for more than one organisation.
- children, adolescent and adult services
- community centres
- drug and alcohol dependency treatment units
- education services
- hospices and other therapeutic centres
- mental health projects
- museums and galleries
- the NHS and the private health sector
- the prison and probation service
- schools (pre-school, primary and secondary)
- school support centres (special and mainstream)
- social services.
Many art therapists start their career as self-employed, sessional workers in order to develop their experience and work portfolio. Although not essential, BAAT recommends that you get some clinical experience working within an organisation, either as employed or self-employed, before taking on private practice. This is so that you can refine your assessment skills and knowledge of the statutory regulations and to strengthen your clinical skills.
You should then be in a stronger position to work in private practice, where you will generate your own work through networking, making speculative applications, writing business proposals and giving presentations to potential employers. Find out more about self-employment.
Look for job vacancies at:
- BAAT - jobs are circulated monthly to members.
- Local Government Jobs and the job pages of local government websites.
- NHS Jobs
- NHSScotland Jobs
Qualified private practitioners and supervisors with BAAT membership and at least two years' full time supervised clinical practice (or part-time equivalent) can apply to have a listing on the BAAT Find an Art Therapist search facility.
Continuing professional development (CPD) is an essential part of continuing registration with the HCPC. Registered art therapists must also undergo regular clinical supervision from a recognised supervisor.
Membership of the BAAT is useful for career development and networking opportunities. They offer a number of CPD opportunities at discounted rates, including a range of psychotherapeutic training and related courses. Courses on setting up in private practice are also available. They also advertise courses run by external providers. For more information, see BAAT - Courses & Conferences.
The BAAT also offers the Level 6 Accredited Supervision Diploma, which provides qualified practitioners with the skills and knowledge needed to provide effective evidence-based supervision to other art therapists and trainees.
It's also possible to undertake art therapy research at PhD level.
Although there isn't one fixed career path within the profession, with experience you may move into a management role, leading a team of therapists or managing a therapy unit. You may also consider going into training roles alongside your usual therapy work and run short courses for other art therapists.
There are opportunities to combine work with different client groups and organisations, as well as combining art therapy with other roles such as community artist, teacher or professional artist.
Many therapists progress by developing expertise in areas such as:
- the autistic spectrum
- children with learning difficulties
- forensic medicine
- palliative care
- stroke and head injuries.
You can also join regional groups of therapists, which focus on the needs of art therapy in a particular field, and exchange ideas and methods of working through peer review. It's usual to get a broad portfolio of work experience before deciding to specialise.
There are also opportunities for research and to work in higher education with trainees on one of the postgraduate training courses.