Counselling psychologists work with clients to help them improve their mental health and emotional wellbeing

As a counselling psychologist you'll use psychological theory and research in therapeutic work to help clients with a range of difficult life issues and/or mental health conditions. Clients can include children, adults, families, couples and groups.

Life issues that people struggle to deal with may include:

  • bereavement
  • domestic violence
  • relationship difficulties
  • sexual abuse
  • traumas.

Mental health conditions include:

  • anxiety
  • depression
  • eating disorders
  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • psychosis.

You'll work collaboratively with the client in a holistic and insightful way to enable them to consider change and take control of their recovery.

Practising as a counselling psychologist requires a high level of training and also self-awareness, which is achieved through personal therapy.

Counselling psychologists are based in:

  • consultancy
  • education and research
  • health and care services
  • hospitals
  • prisons and probation services
  • private practice.


As a counselling psychologist, you'll need to:

  • undertake assessments, including assessment of mental health needs, risk assessment and psychometric testing
  • establish a collaborative working relationship with the client based on trust and respect
  • formulate a psychological explanation of the client's issues, exploring their experiences and how they think, how they behave and relate to others, and how they carry out their everyday lives
  • plan and implement specialist psychological treatments to help clients to understand their feelings/behaviour
  • empower clients to address their issues, take control of them and make positive changes to their behaviour
  • monitor and evaluate the outcome of treatments
  • collaborate with - and provide advice to - colleagues, the broader multidisciplinary team and referrers in the planning of treatment and provision of services to meet the client's needs
  • communicate complex, technical and/or clinically sensitive information clearly, both orally and in writing, to clients, their families and carers
  • contribute to research, service evaluation and audit, either individually or as part of a team
  • receive regular clinical and professional supervision from a more senior psychologist
  • carry out continuing personal and professional development to keep your knowledge and skills up to date.

With experience, you may also:

  • train and mentor trainee psychologists
  • manage a team including other psychologists, assistant psychologists and other health staff
  • provide clinical and professional supervision for trainees and more junior psychologists
  • manage, audit and develop counselling psychology services.


  • Counselling psychologists starting as trainees within the NHS will typically be on band 6 of the Agenda for Change (AfC) Pay Rates, which ranges from £35,392 to £42,618.
  • Once qualified, salaries typically range from £43,742 to £50,056 (band 7). Salaries for senior psychologist roles can rise to between £50,952 and £57,349 (band 8a).
  • Counselling psychologists with significant experience and responsibility in the roles of principal or consultant psychologist can reach salaries of £70,417 to £96,376 (Bands 8c to 8d).

Research and lecturing posts at universities often follow academic and related staff scales. For salary details, see the University and College Union (UCU).

Counselling psychologists working in private practice, commerce or industry should expect pay at a similar level to those in the public sector.

Figures are intended as a guide only.

Working hours

Working hours are usually Monday to Friday, 8.30am to 5pm, for jobs in the NHS. Many counselling psychologists are self-employed or work partly for the NHS and partly for themselves. If you're self-employed you may work evenings or weekends to suit client requirements.

There are good opportunities for part-time work, career breaks and job-sharing.

What to expect

  • You'll usually work as part of a multidisciplinary team that includes other health service workers such as psychiatrists, occupational therapists, community psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, wellbeing practitioners and social workers.
  • The work can be rewarding but also challenging as it involves contact with different types of people who are often distressed.
  • Jobs are available throughout the UK. More varied opportunities may be available in larger cities. Some health authorities prioritise psychological therapy, making more jobs available.
  • If you work for more than one employer or are self-employed, you may need to travel locally to meet clients.


To practise as a counselling psychologist in the UK you must be registered with the Health & Care Professions Council (HCPC), which involves training at postgraduate level.

To begin training you'll normally need Graduate Basis for Chartered Membership (GBC). This is achieved by completing a psychology degree or conversion course accredited by The British Psychological Society (BPS). For a full list of GBC qualifying courses see the BPS Accredited Psychology Courses.

You'll then need to complete the BPS-accredited Qualification in Counselling Psychology (QCoP). This is the independent route to training as a counselling psychologist and an alternative to taking a professional doctorate at university.

If you wish to get a place on an accredited Doctorate course, you'll typically need a good first degree (usually a 2:1 or higher), as well as relevant work experience, evidence of research skills and basic counselling/therapeutic training. A 2:2 may be accepted if you also have a higher qualification such as a Masters in psychology that demonstrates your research ability. Contact individual courses providers for exact details on their entry requirements.

To get a place on the QCoP, you'll need to be working in a trainee role, either paid or voluntary. You must also engage a coordinating supervisor, who must be on the BPS Register of Applied Psychology Practice Supervisors, to support you during the training.

On successful completion of either the Doctorate in Counselling Psychology or the QCoP, you're entitled to chartered membership of the BPS and full membership of the BPS Division of Counselling Psychology. You'll also be eligible for entry onto the HCPC register, which entitles you to use the title of counselling psychologist.

You'll also need to undergo an enhanced Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) check (Protecting Vulnerable Groups (PVG) Scheme in Scotland).

Postgraduate training is usually self-financed, and as part of the training you'll also usually pay for your own therapy. In certain cases, you'll also have to pay for your required supervision.

Some trainees secure posts as assistant psychologists first and negotiate part or total funding towards their training from their employer. You could also approach psychology departments to see if there are any funding opportunities (for example, scholarships or bursaries) available.


You'll need to show:

  • interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills
  • excellent communication skills
  • counselling skills
  • an open-minded and sensitive approach when dealing with clients
  • the ability to explore emotional issues with clients
  • a healthy curiosity and research-minded approach to work
  • analytical skills
  • the ability to work as part of a team
  • the capacity to look at how and why things are working, or not, with clients
  • independence and self-motivation
  • self-awareness, self-knowledge, security and self-belief
  • capability of working under pressure
  • time management skills to be able to manage a caseload
  • IT skills
  • understanding of cultural and religious diversity.

Work experience

Course providers typically ask for a minimum of one year's relevant work experience in a mental health or counselling role. Experience as an assistant psychologist, psychological wellbeing practitioner, health or social care support worker or counsellor is useful, as is work as a healthcare assistant in a ward or community setting.

You could also find work in a mental health charity or victim support unit or in a role such as bereavement or relationship counselling. Any experience you get should be more than befriending and should be face-to-face. Contact course providers to check on what type of experience, and how much, they are looking for.

Once you start training, it's important to network and build up contacts with other counselling psychologists through attending conferences, for example.

For free mentoring resources and experiences designed to support aspiring healthcare and legal professionals - including virtual work experience that is accepted by medical schools, see Medic Mentor.

Find out more about the different kinds of work experience and internships that are available.


Many counselling psychologists provide clinical services in health and social care settings. Employers include:

  • NHS general hospitals (in areas such as acute admissions, psychiatric care and rehabilitation) and psychiatric hospitals
  • private hospitals
  • health centres
  • GP surgeries
  • Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) services
  • specialist child and family services, such as Child and Young People's Mental Health Services (CYPMHS) and community mental health teams.

Opportunities are also available in the prison service, voluntary sector, educational settings, such as schools, colleges and universities, research, forensic settings and industry.

Alternatively you can work independently, either alone or in a group practice, or as an organisational consultant in the public or private sector, where you may be involved in training, development or conflict resolution.

There are also some opportunities for experienced counselling psychologists to work abroad, with organisations such as Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization.

Look for job vacancies at:

Hospital websites also advertise vacancies.

Professional development

Once qualified, continuing professional development (CPD) will be an integral part of your career and is an essential requirement of retaining your HCPC registration and chartered membership of the BPS.

Most counselling psychologists have a supervisor or mentor who can provide advice and guidance for dealing with challenging situations, clients or groups.

Further study and specialist development are usually encouraged and should include a mixture of directed and self-directed activities, such as:

  • post-qualification courses, which help to develop your knowledge of different theoretical approaches
  • professional supervision
  • lecturing, teaching or giving presentations
  • attending workshops or conferences
  • topical research, writing articles or papers
  • mentoring, supervising or assessing trainees
  • development of expertise with a particular client group.

You'll need to keep an up-to-date and accurate record of your professional development activities, showing that your CPD contributes to the quality of your practice and service delivery and is beneficial to your clients.

With between two and eight years' experience, you can qualify to join the Register of Psychologists Specialising in Psychotherapy. It's also possible to train to become a clinical supervisor and join the Register of Applied Psychology Practice Supervisors (RAPPS).

More information can be found at the BPS Professional Development Centre.

Career prospects

Clearly defined career paths are available with certain employers including the:

  • Civil Service
  • Her Majesty's Prison & Probation Service (HMPPS)
  • local authorities
  • NHS.

With the right combination of skills and experience, you can move through the grades, taking on more management responsibility for both staff and counselling psychology services. There are also opportunities to move into specialist areas such as post-traumatic stress disorder or to work with specific client groups such as children or the elderly.

With experience you can become self-employed or combine self-employment with part-time work for an employer such as the NHS.

As your career progresses you may become involved in consultancy or the teaching, supervision and training of other counselling psychologists. A senior counselling psychologist may have a portfolio of work that includes working for the NHS, while also practising privately and teaching at a university. There are also opportunities to move into research.

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