A caring and patient demeanour will be vital for anyone considering a career as a social worker
Social workers support individuals and their families through difficult times and ensure that vulnerable people, including children and adults, are safeguarded from harm. Their role is to help improve outcomes in people's lives.
They maintain professional relationships and act as guides and advocates. They sometimes need to use their professional judgment to make tough decisions that might not always be well received by those they are trying to help.
As a social worker, you'll work in a variety of settings within a framework of relevant legislation and procedures, supporting individuals, families and groups within the community. You may work in homes or schools, hospitals or on the premises of other public sector and voluntary organisations.
Social workers tend to specialise in supporting either children and families, or vulnerable adults.
It can be a challenging role, occasionally receiving a lot of media attention, which can be negative when things go seriously wrong. As a result of this, the government is putting more measures in place to support and develop a strong workforce of social workers. Qualified social work professionals are sometimes supported by social work assistants. They also work closely with other professionals in health and social care.
Types of social worker
Social workers can work in both statutory and non-statutory roles. In a statutory position, your role is to adhere to the laws that exist to protect the vulnerable clients that you work with. Social workers have a duty to abide by the legislation and the power to enforce it.
In non-statutory roles, social workers still work with a similar client group but are not specifically responsible for enforcing the law. You'll be employed in the charity sector or in specialist roles, such as providing support for drug and alcohol users, homeless people and people with mental health issues. You may also work in early intervention roles, aiming to prevent the escalation of problems in society to where statutory services are required.
Many social workers work with young people and their families. You might also work with the following groups:
- the elderly
- people with learning and physical disabilities
- young offenders
- people with mental health conditions
- school non-attenders
- drug and alcohol abusers
- the homeless.
Government legislation focusing on the integration of health and social work services means that social workers often work in multidisciplinary teams.
Tasks typically involve:
- conducting interviews with individuals and families to assess and review their situation
- undertaking and writing up assessments (sometimes in collaboration with other professionals), which meet specified standards and timescales
- offering information and support
- organising and managing packages of support to enable people to lead the fullest lives possible
- recommending and sometimes making decisions about the best course of action for a particular person or family
- liaising with, and making referrals to, other agencies
- participating in multidisciplinary teams and meetings regarding, for example, child protection or mental health
- maintaining accurate records and preparing reports for legal action
- giving evidence in court
- participating in training, supervision and team meetings.
You can find out more about a career in social work by visiting Skills for Care, the sector skills council for health and social care professions.
- There are no fixed national salary scales, but salaries for newly qualified social workers are typically between £24,000 and £30,000 per annum depending on the local authority and location.
- With further responsibilities and experience, this can rise to around £40,000. Senior posts such as team manager, commissioning manager and head of service can earn in excess of this amount.
- Graduates on the Frontline social work programme will earn while studying for a fully funded postgraduate diploma and Masters degree. You will receive a tax and NI exempt bursary of £18,000 (or £20,000 in London) in the first year of the programme. As a newly qualified social worker in Year 2 of the programme, you'll earn a salary of between £25,000 and £34,000, depending on the local authority and location.
- Social workers for the NHS typically start on Band 6 of the NHS pay scale, which ranges from £31,365 to £37,890.
Salaries vary depending on a range of factors, including the local authority you work for, the setting you work in (e.g. adult, mental health), your skills and experience, and your location. Salaries are typically higher, for example, in London (where living costs are also higher).
Most local authorities would pay travel expenses for journeys made for business purposes. Many local authorities are happy to negotiate flexible working hours, have family-friendly policies and childcare voucher schemes.
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
Working hours are normally around 37 hours per week. If you work as a residential care social worker, regular unsocial hours are normal practice. Occasional evening and weekend work may be necessary if working in child protection or fostering and adoption teams.
Part-time work, job shares and career breaks are possible.
What to expect
- The work is office based, but with frequent visits to service users.
- The sector in which you work and the structure of your organisation will affect how you operate. You may be the main professional working with the client but, increasingly, you will be part of a multidisciplinary team, working alongside other professionals such as therapists, health professionals, the police, legal services and education professionals.
- Jobs are available in most areas, although this depends on the size of the local population and the particular social work specialism.
- The nature of social work practice can be both emotionally rewarding and demanding. Working conditions are often under-resourced and heavy caseloads are common.
- All social workers are entitled to regular supervision sessions with a more experienced member of staff or manager, which allows the social worker to discuss cases they are working on and get support.
- Travel within a working day is frequent. Absence from home at night is occasional.
- Overseas work or travel is uncommon, although opportunities to work in developing countries do exist. For example, with organisations such as Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) and with families in the armed forces through the Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Families Association (SSAFA).
Social work is a graduate profession and you will need either an honours or a postgraduate degree in social work to find employment. The degree will need to be approved by one of the four regulators. These are:
- Social Work England
- Social Care Wales
- Northern Ireland Social Care Council (NISCC)
- Scottish Social Services Council (SSSC)
Although the diploma in social work (DipSW) and other previous social work qualifications are still recognised as valid social work qualifications, they are no longer offered to new entrants.
If you have an HND or foundation degree you will require an undergraduate degree in social work, although the following subjects may improve your chances of entering the profession:
- legal studies
- politics, government or public administration
- social care
- social sciences.
Most undergraduate degrees are full-time courses lasting three years, although there are some part-time courses.
A minimum 2:2 honours degree is needed for entry to the postgraduate professional training. Some universities will only accept applicants with at least a 2:1, so check with each institution. Applicants will also need to have passed GCSE (or recognised equivalent) maths and English at grade C or above.
Both undergraduate and postgraduate courses cover the same topics and have a strong practical element with over 200 days, usually six to seven hours a day, of supervised work placements. Approved postgraduate courses are usually full time and last two years, although there are some part-time courses available.
Applications for most courses are made through UCAS. A few part-time postgraduate degrees are available where applications should be made directly to the university. Search for an approved course.
There are different options for training on-the-job in social work.
Frontline offers an accelerated, two-year programme for graduates with a focus on leadership development, giving the opportunity for exceptional people to become qualified social workers and lead change in society.
Participants work with police, courts, schools, vulnerable children and families as children's social workers. The programme gives participants the opportunity to develop valuable leadership skills to prepare them for influential careers in social work and beyond. A five-week summer institute is followed by a year of on-the-job training in local authorities and a year as a qualified social worker with the opportunity to study for a Masters.
Alternatively, you might consider enrolling on the Step Up to Social Work programme. It's an alternative, accelerated entry route which combines work and study. Check the website for details of future student intakes.
Learn more about social work courses.
Some students may be eligible for a bursary - see NHS Student Bursaries for further details. The conditions of these bursaries can change from year to year, so you should always check with the institution you're applying to.
You can get specific information on entry requirements and paths to becoming a social worker in Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland from the relevant social care workforce regulator.
You will need to show evidence of the following:
- patience and the ability to remain calm in a crisis
- flexibility to adapt to new roles, tasks and situations
- strong observation, analytical and listening skills
- the capacity to absorb legal and procedural information
- the ability to negotiate, mediate and interpret on behalf of service users
- good organisational skills to work autonomously and plan meetings for a caseload of clients.
Empathy combined with a genuine desire to improve the quality of the lives of service users is essential, as is the ability to think on your feet and make difficult decisions under pressure. An interest or participation in some aspect of your local community is useful. General administrative skills are also needed.
You'll need to have relevant experience in a social work or social care setting before being accepted on to a postgraduate course. Gain as much work experience as possible, either through paid positions in community care settings or by undertaking relevant voluntary work. Some universities specify a minimum amount of time to be spent gaining experience. Details can be found on Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS).
Social workers are employed by:
- social service departments of local authorities in England and Wales
- social work departments in Scotland
- health and social care trusts in Northern Ireland
- primary care/health service trusts
- GP practices
- hospitals and hospices
- children's homes
- private sector nursing homes
- voluntary and independent agencies.
Settings vary depending on the employer. For example, you may be working in a large department with many hundreds of employees or you could be based in a small organisation where you are the only professionally qualified member of staff.
With experience, you may be able to work in a self-employed or freelance capacity and secure work through agencies. There is a growing market for locum social workers, especially if you have child protection experience. It may be possible to offer counselling, therapy or training skills on a freelance basis. Some local authorities and private homes keep a casual relief list.
Local authority social work tends to have better terms and conditions of employment, but voluntary organisations can offer more flexibility. It's possible to transfer from one sector to another once you're qualified. There are promotion possibilities in both sectors - however, you may be able to take on more responsibility more quickly in the voluntary sector. In both sectors there are a range of operational, management and policy jobs.
There are increasing numbers of social workers operating as independent practitioners and social enterprises are taking over social services in some areas. Information about this can be found via the British Association of Social Workers (BASW).
Look for job vacancies at:
- BASW Jobs
- Children & Young People Now
- Community Care Jobs
- Compass Jobs Fairs
- Great Social Care
- Harris Hill
- Health Service Journal
- Local Government Jobs
- NHS Jobs
You can also look to local and regional press, local authority and council websites and recruitment agencies who may handle social work vacancies.
Discover how to answer social work interview questions.
Qualified social workers in England are required to register with Social Work England and renew their registration on an annual basis. In order to stay on the register, you must keep your training and learning up to date through continuing professional development (CPD). This can include different sorts of learning, such as reading and attending conferences and training courses.
The Assessed and Supported Year in Employment (ASYE) was launched with the aim of ensuring that newly qualified social workers (NQSWs) receive consistent support in their first year of practice, so that they are able to become confident, competent professionals.
The Social Work Reform Board is implementing the recommendations made by the Social Work Task Force to improve the quality of social work. This is informing a professional capabilities framework (PCF) for social workers. The College of Social Work is developing mechanisms and guidance to support this, which are applicable to all social workers in England.
Social Care Wales is responsible for the Continuing Professional Education and Learning (CPEL) framework for social workers in Wales.
In Northern Ireland, the NISCC provides information about post-qualification training.
In Scotland, registered social workers must take part in CPD which can contribute towards a registered worker's post-registration training and learning (PRTL). See the SSSC website for more details.
Social workers also need to develop their IT, problem solving, communication, teamwork and personal and professional development skills to succeed in the role.
There are many specialist roles available in social work, once you've completed the appropriate induction and training. These roles include:
- homelessness officer
- day-care social worker
- education welfare officer
- healthcare social worker
- mental health social worker.
Career development may involve a change of role within a specialism, e.g. from child protection to fostering and adoption. It's also possible to transfer from one specialism to another, e.g. from working with children to working with the elderly.
Social work is a profession where promotion is likely to take you away from hands-on work. Three to five years after qualification it's possible to become a senior practitioner, team or care manager. In this role, you would have responsibility for managing other social workers, (resulting in a reduction in direct contact), and an increasing involvement in managerial, financial and political issues.
Another route is to become a practice educator, which allows you to become involved in the supervision and management of social work students and less experienced staff.
In England, Social Work England and the Care Quality Commission (CQC) are responsible for regulating, auditing and reviewing social care providers. They may also offer opportunities for career development. In Wales this is done by Social Care Wales, while it's NISCC in Northern Ireland and SSSC in Scotland.
Another option is to move from one sector to another (statutory, voluntary and independent). You could also consider training and lecturing roles or opportunities for project work and secondments.