The work of a food technologist can be varied from developing recipes and modifying manufacturing processes to managing the safety and legality of food
As a food technologist, you'll work on the development and manufacturing processes and recipes of food and drink products. Your aim will be to make sure the products are safe, made in an efficient way and meet specific standards. You could also work on existing and newly-discovered ingredients to invent new recipes and concepts.
You may modify foods to create products such as fat-free items and ready meals and will often work closely with the product development teams to help deliver factory-ready recipes, based on development kitchen samples. Keeping up with ever-changing food production regulations will be an essential part of your job.
Your tasks may vary depending on where you work, which can include food and drink manufacturing companies, universities, research associations, retailers and local authorities.
As a food technologist, you'll need to:
- modify existing products and processes and develop new ones
- check and improve safety and quality control procedures in your own and suppliers' factories, from the raw material stage through to the finished product
- research current consumer markets and latest technologies to develop new product concepts
- select raw materials and other ingredients from suppliers
- prepare product costings based on raw materials and manufacturing costs to ensure profitable products
- audit suppliers or manage internal audits
- run trials of new products - either alongside or together with product development
- coordinate launches of new products
- deal with any customer complaint investigations or product issues
- compile, check and approve product specifications and labelling
- undertake long-term projects with other departments, such as reducing waste by improving efficiency
- work on packaging innovation and technology
- conduct experiments and produce sample products
- design the processes and machinery for making products with a consistent flavour, colour and texture in large quantities
- build relationships with suppliers and customers
- ensure products are profitable.
Depending on the sector you work in, you may also do the following additional tasks.
In food manufacturing:
- develop the ability to repeat processes to ensure consistency and safety
- liaise with technical and commercial colleagues in procurement, sales, technical services and marketing and distribution, and with official food inspection and hygiene agencies (this takes up a considerable proportion of time on the manufacturing side)
- work with engineering and production to develop solutions to production issues, while maintaining food safety.
- work with suppliers on quality issues and new product ideas
- manage the safety, legality and quality of food produced.
In the public sector:
- carry out administrative tasks and devise policy for government departments
- implement enforcement roles in local authority environmental health departments.
- Starting salaries for graduate food technologists are in the region of £20,000 to £26,000.
- With experience, salaries of £25,000 to £45,000 can be reached.
- At a senior management level, you could earn up to £50,000+.
Higher salaries usually bring increased managerial responsibility.
You may be entitled to additional benefits, such as a performance-related bonus, private health plan, pension, company car (depending on the nature of the work) and ongoing professional development opportunities.
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
Working hours are typically around 40 hours a week. In the retail and public sector you'll usually work Monday to Friday, possibly with some extra hours. However, in the private sector (for example in factories) shift work is usual right up until management level.
Shift work may sometimes be required when running production trials, where auditing hours need to fit the site production times. You'll need to be flexible but when you've worked out of hours you'll typically be given the time back.
Part-time work and flexible hours may be available.
What to expect
- Work is usually carried out in factories but may also take place in an office, laboratory or kitchen.
- Jobs are available in most areas of the country as food manufacturers are found throughout the UK. Retail posts tend to be head-office based, often in London or bigger cities. Larger companies may expect you to work in different locations in the early part of your career. Public sector posts are with government agencies, such as the Food Standards Agency, and in local authorities.
- Hygiene is very important and the dress code is appropriate to the function, which is normally smart/casual for the office or protective clothing with headwear for laboratory, kitchen and factory work.
- If you're vegetarian or have strict convictions about permitted foods, you may feel limited with where you can work. However, this is often understood by the industry and, in most cases, work can be managed.
- Extensive travel within the working day may be required if you work in retail or for a local authority. Travel may be local, national or international and may involve visiting suppliers' factories for audit or sampling purposes, as well as warehouses and distribution centres. Overnight absence from home may be common in some posts.
You'll benefit from having a food-related degree for entry into this area of work. The following subjects in particular are relevant:
- food, nutrition and health
- food safety and quality management
- food science/technology/engineering.
Other relevant science subjects include physical, mathematical, life and medical science. In particular, subjects such as nutrition, microbiology and applied chemistry/biochemistry are helpful.
You can enter this profession with a relevant HND, although having an HND alone - without further study or experience - may restrict your career progression.
Entry without a degree or HND is sometimes possible but this will be at technician level. You may be able to move on to become a food technologist if you gain further qualifications and experience.
It is also possible to enter without a degree if you complete a food technologist advanced apprenticeship. You'll then need to go on to complete a food industry technical professional degree apprenticeship to reach the required level within the career.
If you have an unrelated degree, postgraduate study in areas such as food quality management may significantly increase your chances of entry. Choosing a relevant dissertation in your final year will help to show your enthusiasm and commitment to the role. Search for postgraduate courses in food technology.
A list of universities offering undergraduate and postgraduate courses, and degree apprenticeships, in food technology, is available from the Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST) - Accredited Degree Programmes.
You'll need to show:
- a genuine interest in science and how it is applied to food and cookery
- high standards of cleanliness and the ability to adhere to strict hygiene rules
- excellent attention to detail
- strong written and verbal communication skills
- leadership qualities
- people and teamworking skills
- a flexible approach to working
- numeracy and problem-solving skills
- good organisational ability and time-management skills
- an awareness of the consumer market.
Work experience in the food manufacturing industry is advantageous. Try to gain as much practical experience as possible - apply for summer work as a laboratory technician or on the production line in food companies, and make sure you network and make contacts while on placement. Technical experience in retail or manufacturing is also valued.
The Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST) has valuable information for students and apprentices about their Student Career LaunchPad, which is an annual event that aims to give experience of the food sector and insights to careers, as well as the competitions and awards that they run throughout the year. You can also join the IFST as a student member to get help with networking and professional development.
Find out more about the different kinds of work experience and internships that are available.
Food technologists are employed by a range of companies and organisations within the food industry across both the public and private sectors.
Job roles and titles vary widely and there is considerable crossover between the sectors. Typical types of organisation and associated job roles in the main industry sectors include:
- central government bodies - policy, administration and research
- education - teaching in schools, colleges and universities, being involved in teaching, training and research
- food and drink manufacturing companies - production, quality assurance and product development
- food processing and equipment manufacturing organisations - developing new equipment and production methods
- local authorities - food inspection, typically in an environmental health department
- research associations and technical consultancies - product and materials research, and specialist advice to industry sectors
- retailers and supermarket chains - quality assurance, new product development, buying, marketing and packaging.
Look for job vacancies at:
Recruitment agencies commonly handle vacancies. Other useful sources of contacts for speculative applications are directories such as The Grocer: Suppliers and Products Guide.
Competition is strong for posts with well-known companies and for graduates with non-relevant degrees. Major companies start recruitment in the autumn/spring term of your final year. It's also worthwhile making speculative applications to companies. If you're flexible about location, you'll benefit from this when looking for jobs.
Some major employers run graduate training schemes. If you have a degree in a different science discipline such as microbiology or biotechnology you will usually get additional training from your employer. Smaller employers may not have formal training schemes but will carry out on-the-job training.
There are various short courses that can be taken throughout your career in areas such as food hygiene or meat safety, or in a specific subject that relates to your role such as advanced baking. Other relevant courses include subjects in science and technology or sales and marketing. Courses may be paid for by employers.
You may choose to undertake full or part-time postgraduate study in a related area if you don't already hold that qualification. Courses are offered in areas such as:
- food biotechnology/bioscience
- food chain systems
- food production management
- food safety/quality management
- food science/technology
- nutrition and food sciences.
Think about your desired career path and if this qualification will aid progression before committing to a course.
A big part of your role will be to make sure food products and processes are safe and it's therefore important to keep up to date with changing food production regulations. To do this, as well as keeping your skill set up to date, you'll need to complete continuing professional development (CPD).
IFST has a CPD scheme, which can help with this. It gives advice on what can be included as CPD activities and how to plan and record them. For more details see IFST - CPD standards and learning activities.
If you'd like to move into food inspection (e.g. working in a local authority environmental health department), there are a number of courses that are accredited through the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (CIEH).
If you're interested in the food standards element of the work, you can find course information through the Chartered Trading Standards Institute (CTSI).
In larger organisations, you can gain promotion to more senior technologist posts, with greater management responsibility for staff and resources. This could eventually result in you obtaining a management post with strategic responsibility for related areas. A typical career path might be as follows:
- development technologist
- senior development technologist
- project leader (lead food technologist)
- new product development manager.
Alternatively, you could specialise in a particular area, such as quality or process management, or move into another business area, such as business development or sales.
While larger companies offer more opportunity for cross-functional moves, small and medium-sized companies generally offer greater responsibility earlier in your career and the chance to gain skills and experience across a range of business areas quickly.
To gain promotion or to increase salary level, you may find it necessary to move between employers. In some cases, this may require relocation.
The IFST provides a route for professional recognition as a Chartered Scientist (CSci) for appropriately qualified members. For full details see IFST - Chartered Scientist. This can provide evidence of your professional competence and experience to employers which may help career progression.