You'll need to be curious about human behaviour, a logical thinker, and have an awareness of research methods to get a job as a social researcher
Social researchers plan, design, conduct, manage and report on social research projects. You will use a variety of methods to collect, analyse and organise information and data, which you then present to others, either in a written report or as an oral presentation.
A range of methods, such as interviews, survey questionnaires and focus groups, are used to investigate the attitudes, behaviour and experiences of population samples on specific issues. Research findings may be used to shape policy or to examine the effectiveness of existing policy.
The research might centre on a range of topics, such as:
As a social researcher you'll need to:
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
Working hours are typically 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday, with some extra hours required, particularly near to a project deadline.
Part-time work in field research is possible.
You will usually need at least a first degree, preferably in a social science, to get into social research and entry with an HND only is unlikely. The following subjects may be particularly useful:
Although it's possible to move into a career in social research straight after your degree, particularly if your course included social research methods and statistics, many employers now expect you to have more detailed knowledge of research techniques. You can develop this knowledge through taking a taught Masters course in social research methods or by doing a research degree (MPhil, PhD). Search for postgraduate courses in social research.
If you want to work in the higher education sector, a PhD may be particularly useful as an advanced understanding of subject-specific academic methodology is often appreciated.
You will need to have:
It's important to get practical experience in, for example, research or market research interviewing or through work involving research methodology. Check out the Market Research Society website for details of companies that welcome approaches from students and graduates looking for a work placement in social or market research.
Opportunities for freelance and temporary survey interviewers are also available with the National Centre for Social Research (NatCen). You could also get experience in a managerial or administrative role in which research is used to evaluate service delivery.
Although the larger research agencies are likely to have graduate traineeships, small businesses specialising in social research may not have formal vacancies. Use your networking skills at social research or training events to find out about possible openings.
There are opportunities available in many types of organisation, including central and local government, charities, large and small research agencies and higher education institutions.
Many of the larger research agencies, such as Ipsos MORI, TNS BMRB and GfK, have specialist social research departments and some offer graduate traineeships. There are also many small businesses that specialise in social and market research.
If you're working in higher education, you'll either be employed in a large research centre, which employ both permanent and fixed-term research staff, of a university teaching department, where researchers are often employed on fixed-term contracts of one or two years.
Other employers include:
Some market research consultancies in the private sector also conduct social research for clients such as government agencies, consumer goods producers and retailers, and media agencies.
Look for job vacancies at:
The Research Buyers Guide provides information on companies and consultants offering market research services, which may be useful for speculative applications.
Recruitment agencies rarely handle vacancies.
Graduate training programmes are available with some of the larger research agencies and government departments. These usually last two years and include initial induction, on-the-job training, a range of short courses and mentor support.
With many of the smaller organisations, you will be trained on the job, learning from colleagues. You'll also take short training courses on specific areas, such as:
Training in a broad range of areas including report writing, questionnaire design and testing, qualitative approaches, and commissioning and managing research is provided by the Social Research Association (SRA) and NatCen Learning. Membership of the SRA is also useful for networking and career development opportunities.
You may also decide to study for an MSc in social research part time while working.
In central and local government, higher education and most of the independent research institutes, there's a recognisable career structure with different grades reflecting levels of experience, responsibility and seniority.
As a typical new entrant in the Civil Service you might expect to be a research officer for two years before promotion to senior research officer. Promotion to principal research officer generally takes four years, depending on your skills and experience. If you're employed at a university specialist research centre, your career and salary structures are usually linked to those of lecturing staff.
Working for a major research agency such as the NatCen, Ipsos MORI, TNS BMRB or GfK you're likely to start as a researcher before moving on to the role of senior researcher. At director level, you may be in charge of a group of researchers focused on a policy area, and will need strong leadership and management skills.
Promotion from entry level generally leads to involvement in larger projects, project management, more policy decisions, tendering for new business, and staff and financial management. Senior researchers are also expected to win new business.