Whether you're treating patients or conducting research, working in healthcare means you'll be making a difference to the lives of others. Find out what skills, qualifications and work experience you'll need

What areas of healthcare can I work in?

Employment opportunities can be grouped into:

  • allied health (e.g. physiotherapy, radiography, occupational therapy)
  • ambulance services
  • complementary therapies
  • dentistry
  • health informatics
  • health promotion
  • healthcare administration and management
  • healthcare science (e.g. clinical engineering, biomedical science, pathology)
  • medical equipment sales
  • medicine (e.g. doctors, surgeons, GPs)
  • medical research
  • midwifery
  • nursing
  • nutrition and diet
  • optometry and opticians
  • pharmacy
  • psychological therapies.

You could work in the National Health Service (NHS), private healthcare or private/non-profit organisations in a range of settings including:

  • care homes or hospices
  • community healthcare (e.g. doctor's surgery, dental surgery, health clinic)
  • hospitals
  • medical laboratories
  • people's homes.

In large organisations such as the NHS and private healthcare providers such as Bupa, there are jobs for graduates in:

  • customer care
  • finance
  • hospitality
  • human resources (HR)
  • IT
  • legal services
  • marketing
  • procurement
  • sales.

Alternatively you might consider health-related roles in the science and pharmaceuticals or leisure, sport and tourism sectors.

Who are the main graduate employers?

The largest employer in the UK healthcare sector is the NHS, which employs more than 1.5 million people - placing it in the top five largest workforces in the world. There are more than 350 different roles available within the NHS.

A significant proportion of the sector's workforce is in independent healthcare. In addition to their private sector functions, these providers are increasingly contracted to provide services on behalf of the NHS.

Independent healthcare organisations include:

  • Bupa
  • BMI Healthcare
  • Care UK
  • Ramsay Health Care UK
  • Spire Healthcare.

Voluntary and non-profit organisations in the healthcare sector include:

  • British Red Cross
  • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) UK
  • Nuffield Health
  • Save the Children
  • Sue Ryder.

What's it like working in the sector?

Graduates entering the healthcare sector can expect:

  • national pay rates for all NHS employees except doctors, dentists and senior managers, who are paid via a separate arrangement
  • shift work with unsociable and often long working hours
  • a range of different working conditions depending on the role and organisation
  • a potentially stressful and emotionally draining working environment
  • to be able to work anywhere in the country.

Search healthcare job profiles to find out more about typical salaries and working conditions in your chosen career.

What skills do employers want?

Employers in the healthcare sector require candidates with:

  • the ability to stay calm in high pressure situations, such as during surgery
  • attention to detail
  • empathy and an approachable nature
  • good communication skills, for example to advise patients about their options
  • the ability to work in a team.

For many graduate healthcare careers, including medicine, nursing, midwifery and allied healthcare, you must be a registered healthcare professional. You'll need a relevant approved degree and to register with a professional body to work in these roles.

If you haven't studied an approved first degree, you could consider a graduate-entry accelerated course to start your clinical career. Some of these will require you to have a science or health-related degree, but others are open to graduates of any subject. In any case, you'll typically need at least a 2:2 and a substantial amount of work experience to be successful.

The NHS Modernising Scientific Careers scheme has resulted in more structured training for healthcare science roles. The NHS Practitioner Training Programme (PTP) combines study for a BSc with work-based training in areas such as life sciences, medical physics technology and clinical engineering.

For some roles such as paramedic, physiotherapist and occupational therapist, it's possible to work your way up from assistant level through in-service work-based learning including degree level study. However, postgraduate study is an essential part of training in a number of roles such as pharmacy and clinical psychology.

In other areas, for example nursing and midwifery, you can consider taking post-registration courses at postgraduate level in order to specialise.

More information about routes into healthcare careers can be found by visiting the websites of relevant professional bodies, such as:

For information on entry requirements and relevant qualifications, see healthcare job profiles.

How do I find a graduate job in healthcare?

Jobs within the NHS are advertised through NHS Jobs and individual NHS Trust websites. Jobs in independent healthcare are usually advertised on company websites or via specialist recruitment agencies.

The NHS Graduate Management Training Scheme has options in finance, HR, general management and health informatics. Graduates with 2:2 degrees in any subject area are considered.

If you have a 2:1 degree in pure or applied science, you could consider the NHS Scientist Training Programme (STP). This offers you the chance to take on paid work while studying towards a Masters degree in areas such as blood sciences, genetics and medical physics. Visit Health Careers for the latest application details.

Vacancies for smaller organisations can be found by contacting them directly with a speculative application or through local press advertisements.

Find out more