An acupuncturist is a complementary health practitioner who takes a holistic approach to the maintenance of health and the management of disease. The focus is on the individual rather than the illness and the aim is to improve the person's overall wellbeing.
Acupuncture is an ancient therapy based on the theory that the body depends on vital energy, known as qi, being in balance. If there is pain or illness, acupuncturists see this as a sign that the body is out of balance. To correct this they insert fine needles into acupuncture points, which restore the flow of qi to then trigger the body's natural healing process.
The correct manipulation of qi can treat a range of emotional and physical conditions, such as:
- musculo-skeletal disorders;
- respiratory and circulatory disorders;
- gastrointestinal disorders;
- gynaecological disorders;
- neurological and stress-related disorders;
- the relief of pain and allergies.
Acupuncturists conduct one-to-one consultations with patients. The first consultation is used to establish a detailed case history of the patient, before a diagnosis is made and treatment begins.
You will then usually run subsequent treatment sessions that last from 45 minutes to an hour.
The duration of the treatment programme varies depending on the severity of the problem. Some patients may require only a few sessions, while others may need 20 or more.
In general, tasks include:
- making a diagnosis and devising a personalised treatment plan;
- taking a detailed case history, which typically involves questioning patients about their condition, all aspects of their physical and emotional health and history, lifestyle and diet as well as sometimes taking their blood pressure;
- taking a pulse and examining the tongue to aid diagnosis;
- explaining the diagnosis and treatment to the patient and responding to their questions and concerns;
- treating by inserting fine needles into the skin at particular locations to stimulate the energy flow along meridians (energy channels) and the body's own healing response;
- incorporating other treatments, such as moxibustion (burning herbs to warm insertion points), electro-acupuncture (stimulating insertion points with small electric currents), acupressure (to loosen and relax muscles), and cupping;
- assessing patient progress through questioning and examination as well as reviewing treatment plans if necessary;
- keeping patient and financial records;
- organising and promoting your practice.
- An acupuncturist's earnings are related to the success of the practice and may be low during the first three to four years,as it can take time to get established.
- On average, acupuncturists treat between one and four clients a day in the early stages, at about £40 a session (£45 to £90 per session in London). More will be charged for the initial consultation session. Once established, an acupuncturist may treat 30 to 40 clients a week and fees can vary depending on the success and location of the practice.
Some acupuncturists offer multi-bed sessions in which more than one client is treated at a time (using partition screens for privacy), making it possible to reduce the treatment cost.
Additional income from other employment may be required to cover living costs and overheads, such as rent of practice premises, until the time that clients' fees cover outgoings.
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
Working hours typically include frequent unsocial hours, e.g. weekends and evenings, to suit clients. Part-time work and career breaks are possible.
What to expect
- The cost of overheads and room rental may determine the place of work; you may have a private or shared consulting room. Flexibility and mobility are an advantage when starting out.
- Practitioners need to be at ease with physical contact and with working in a variety of workplaces (including patients' homes) with a range of clients and colleagues.
- Self-employment is very common and ultimately offers a choice of working hours and locations.
- Jobs are quite widely available in both urban and rural areas. Effective self-promotion is essential in order to compete successfully in areas where there are already a number of established acupuncture practices.
- A uniform is not required, but many acupuncturists choose to wear white clinical clothing (tunic and trousers).
- Travel within a working day may be frequent for mobile acupuncturists, but is less likely for those who are practice-based.
- Overnight absences from home and overseas work or travel are uncommon.
A variety of courses in acupuncture are available and they may vary in length depending on the educational provider.
Some courses are accredited by the British Acupuncture Accreditation Board (BAAB), which ensures a certain level of teaching has been met.
All accredited courses include a minimum of 400 hours in a clinical setting and cover a basis in Chinese medicine theory along with physiology, anatomy and other western medical sciences.
Courses are run at an honours-degree level and many lead to a BSc. Some institutions also offer MSc courses. A list of available courses can be found at British Acupuncture Accreditation Board: Accredited Courses.
Completing an accredited course means you are automatically eligible to join the British Acupuncture Council (BAcC). This enables you to join the BAcC register, which allows acupuncturists to display the Accredited Voluntary Register quality mark to show their practice meets robust professional standards.
You do not need to have previous experience in healthcare to get onto one of the accredited courses and you should check entry requirements with any providers of non-accredited courses. Knowledge of biological sciences is helpful but attitude, personal qualities and life experience are equally important.
Personal experience of successful treatment and any experience of teaching, counselling, advice work, massage or nursing may be useful for acupuncture courses.
When looking for a course, it is important to research the course content, speak to practitioners in the field and carefully compare the pros and cons of qualification through the various institutions.
Observation and clinical practice form a substantial part of the training, and practice treatments are carried out under the close supervision of trained and experienced acupuncturists.
You can get student membership of the BAcC while studying, which offers access to a student website, copy of the in-house publication and advice on setting up your own practice once you are qualified.
You will need to show:
- good communication and interpersonal skills in order to explain treatment processes and establish a positive rapport with clients;
- the ability to put patients at ease;
- effective organisational, marketing and financial skills in order to set up and run a successful business.
An open, non-judgemental approach is essential. The work requires maturity and sensitivity to deal with the difficult emotional issues that can arise during a client's treatment.
The vast majority of acupuncturists are self-employed and work from their own home or premises or visit patients' homes. There are some who work at private multidisciplinary complementary healthcare or medical centres, where they may rent a treatment room.
A few companies, keen to enhance their employees' potential, hire acupuncturists to treat their staff.
Although still quite rare, opportunities for part-time work through the NHS or GP practices are increasing to complement other aspects of healthcare, in areas such as:
- pain management;
- antenatal care.
Limited part-time work may be available in hospices or care homes.
Look for job vacancies at:
- British Acupuncture Council (BAcC) - members can have their practices listed on the website.
- NHS Jobs
- The On Board Spa Company - information about acupuncturist careers on cruise ships.
- Simply Hired - Acupuncture Jobs - search engine listing acupuncture jobs.
Since acupuncturists are generally self-employed, vacancy adverts are limited. For more information on setting up a business, see self-employment.
As it is likely you will be self-employed, it is important to maintain contact with professional organisations to benefit from opportunities for training and development.
Continuing professional development (CPD) and training seminars are run by colleges and professional organisations, such as the British Acupuncture Council (BAcC), which acupuncturists are encouraged to attend.
If you want to increase your knowledge you may wish to take further training in areas such as:
- specific acupuncture techniques;
- advanced acupuncture theory;
- Chinese herbal medicine;
- other holistic medical therapies.
You can also choose to specialise by undertaking specific training in areas such as:
- pain management;
- stroke rehabilitation;
- antenatal care;
- psychiatric care;
Some short courses are offered (in English) in countries such as China and Hong Kong. Doctoral study is also available.
Most UK regions have set up support groups for acupuncturists, which can be a way of seeking out professional opinion, networking and keeping abreast of opportunities for further training and development. Supervision is also encouraged.
There is no structured career progression for an acupuncturist and success depends very much on professional and business ability. Client numbers tend to increase as you gain experience and reputation; personal interests often determine career direction.
It is important to keep up to date with developments in the profession through continued professional development (CPD). CPD is a requirement to be a member of the British Acupuncture Council (BAcC).
The development of a practice may be affected by geographic location, size of population and the number of other practices already in the area.
Acupuncturists often work in more than one location or setting, which can provide variety.
After gaining considerable experience, it is possible for you to teach or supervise students on courses, e.g. as clinical supervisors at acupuncture colleges. You could also choose to research, write, or practise another therapy alongside acupuncture.
There may be opportunities to work abroad. However, you should check the specific requirements of the country you're interested in working in, as these may differ from the UK.