Plant breeder/geneticists work on improving the quality and performance of existing agricultural and horticultural crops and create new varieties of plants
As a plant breeder/geneticist your aim will be to develop useful traits in plants, such as disease resistance and drought tolerance. You'll also work to improve characteristics such as appearance. Your role will be vital to the agricultural industry as there are constant challenges to meet market requirements and consumer demands, and to increase and maintain yields in important crops.
The traditional work of crossing existing plants and selecting new strains has been enhanced. You'll use your expertise to quickly and accurately select plants containing the genes of interest.
As a plant breeder/geneticist, you'll need to:
- produce research aims and objectives, and predict the cost of the work
- research methods and techniques for improving plant breeding
- identify and select plants exhibiting desirable traits, based on natural genetic variation
- cross plants to produce new breeding material for field and glasshouse trials
- analyse and scientifically assess plant breeding in laboratory and field trials and select the best varieties
- conduct scientific projects, which may be laboratory based, especially in the winter months
- multiply up and produce virus-free plants
- maintain detailed records throughout the research and development cycle
- manage, support and train technical and field staff
- keep up to date in the fast-moving area of science and translate ideas from scientific literature into new approaches to breeding problems
- monitor the activities of competitors (in commercial settings) and develop a product market profile
- respond to enquiries from farmers, agronomists and other professionals
- write and present work to other scientists and publish scientific findings
- liaise with and visit other scientists, commercial breeders and funding bodies.
- Entry-level plant breeders earn in the region of £20,000.
- With around five years' experience, salaries can reach £25,000.
- Highly experienced plant breeders can earn £40,000+.
Pay tends to be higher in the public sector. In the private sector, additional benefits might include a company car and medical insurance. Pay is often performance related.
Income figures are intended as a guide only.
The working routine follows a seasonal pattern and shifts are usually quite long with the plants requiring care seven days a week, although some months are less busy than others. Extra hours may sometimes be required depending on the experiments that are being carried out.
What to expect
- Trials are mostly conducted in the field, which may involve working in poor weather conditions. Some researchers, however, are purely laboratory-based. Assessment and data analysis take place in the office.
- Self-employment is not likely. Specialist freelance writing or advisory work may be possible. There may be opportunities for career breaks.
- This is a developing industry that changes quickly. Patience is required due to the time-consuming process, but success is rewarding.
- Travel within a working day and overnight absence from home may be occasionally required. This will usually be to meet with other breeders and farmers or to attend trade shows.
- Opportunities to work abroad occasionally arise but these positions commonly require previous overseas experience. The vacancies are usually short term.
You'll need a good honours degree for entry into this career. Relevant subjects include life and medical sciences and agricultural and horticultural sciences. In particular, the following degree subjects are helpful:
- botany and plant science
- crop and plant science
- molecular biology.
A postgraduate qualification in a relevant topic can be advantageous and many plant breeders hold one. Search postgraduate courses in plant genetics.
Entry with an HND is only possible for technical support roles in breeding programmes. It may be possible to work your way up from here to the role of plant breeder/geneticist, if you study for further qualifications.
Undertaking a relevant undergraduate or postgraduate project or choosing a PhD funded by industry will make you more competitive during the application process. It will also be a way to gain useful contacts that could lead to employment opportunities.
You'll need to have:
- enthusiasm, commitment and a strong interest in plants and plant science
- good problem-solving skills
- excellent oral and written communication skills
- the ability to carry out work independently and with patience
- a flexible approach
- the ability and stamina to undertake research and long-term projects
- the skills to manage a busy laboratory
- strong teamworking skills
- an analytical and investigative mind
- computer literacy and technical skills, as most laboratories are highly computerised
- a driving licence may be required for some posts.
You can increase your chances of finding a job by gaining some relevant pre-entry experience, such as vacation work or a sandwich placement in a plant breeding company/laboratory or agricultural setting. Most companies take students over the summer, especially during harvesting. Posts are usually advertised on individual company websites.
Research the industry to determine which area you would like to work in. You'll need to consider which areas are likely to be most commercially in-demand in the future.
Plant breeding is a specialised field, and because of this the number of vacancies is low, but so is the pool of applicants. This means that those with relevant experience (perhaps through a summer job or placement with a plant breeding company), and relevant subjects of study have a reasonable chance of securing a position.
Find out more about the different kinds of work experience and internships that are available.
Modern plant breeding is an increasingly sophisticated, high-investment business. Most commercial plant breeding takes place within the private sector. Plant breeding work is also carried out in a limited number of research institutes.
Plant breeders are employed in a range of areas including:
- government research agencies
- commercial plant breeding companies
- genetic engineering firms
- seed specialists.
The British Society of Plant Breeders (BSPB) has more than 75 member organisations made up of research institutes, companies that actively breed in the UK, and breeders' agents who represent varieties from continental breeders in the UK.
Government agricultural research agencies include institutes funded or grant-aided by the:
- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
- Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
- Scottish Government - Rural Affairs, Food and Environment Research
These research institutes include:
Breeding work in these institutes is funded and undertaken by the commercial firms represented by the BSPB.
There are employment opportunities in the rapidly emerging field of plant synthetic biology, where the aim is to genetically engineer new living things and organisms. In this work, the genetic code of plants is altered for specific purposes, e.g. to create synthetic sensors and metabolic pathways. This research and development in genetic engineering has, among other positive uses, radical implications for the treatment of disease.
As a result, biotechnology companies are starting to create biological factories in which custom proteins and materials are harvested to produce commercially valuable chemicals, vaccines, drugs, biodegradable plastics and biofuels. Job opportunities are increasing because of this, however, these roles are likely to be slightly different from that of a plant breeder/geneticist.
Look for job vacancies at:
The BSPB list of members provides a useful source of contacts details for making enquiries about student placements or making speculative applications. Most BSPB members advertise vacancies on their own company website.
You'll be given necessary scientific training on the job and will be supported in your learning by your team and your manager. Attending conferences and seminars throughout your career will help you learn new skills and update existing ones and acquire techniques and knowledge.
A PhD is considered to be appropriate training for research scientists wanting to achieve more senior positions. You may be offered a secondment to attend university or given the option to work part time while you complete further study. In addition to academic institutions, specialist research institutes such as the John Innes Centre and Rothamsted Research, also offer PhD studentships.
Some companies offer structured training programmes, which provide the opportunity to gain experience in different areas. More structured training is usually available for research scientists in commercial firms and government-funded research institutes.
Some plant breeders may wish to enhance their training by overseas experience, which might take the form of a period of overseas study, a visit to an overseas breeding organisation, or presenting work at an international conference.
Useful organisations that can aid your continuing professional development (CPD) include:
- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
- British Society of Plant Breeders (BSPB)
- Chartered Institute of Horticulture
- The James Hutton Institute
Promotion to senior research/breeding positions will be dependent on ability, performance and experience. Progression will involve increased responsibilities, including supervision, project management and senior management. In larger companies, an increase in seniority will involve a shift from direct laboratory and field work, to more strategic and budgetary responsibilities, as well as people management.
If you wish to move from the public sector to the private sector, you can seek a position with a commercial international company, specialised seed firm or a biotechnology and genetic engineering firm.
In research councils and institutes, career development means moving through bands from research scientist to senior research scientist. Because many of the plant breeding/development teams are small, there are limited vacancies, meaning that developing your career may not be a quick process and it can be challenging.
If you've studied for a PhD relating to plant breeding, you could go on to take up a post-doctoral position, possibly then moving to a senior research fellowship.