Probation officers manage offenders to protect the public, and reduce the incidence of reoffending by helping them make better life choices

As a probation officer, you'll work with offenders in courts, in the community and in custody to make communities safer. This involves interacting with offenders, victims, police and prison service colleagues on a regular basis.

You'll work closely with relevant statutory and voluntary agencies and will also manage approved residential premises for offenders and ex-prisoners. In addition, you'll manage and enforce the conditions of community orders, which are an alternative to a prison sentence.

The newly unified Probation Service in England and Wales is responsible for the supervision of offenders in the community after their release. The statutory body also provides the criminal courts with reports to help them in sentencing.

In Northern Ireland the probation service is the Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI). A consultation on a review of the status and governance of the PBNI was launched in December 2021, so there may be changes ahead.

In Scotland, probation is managed within the social work departments of local authorities.


As a probation officer, you'll typically need to:

  • manage low and medium-risk offenders, and also high-risk offenders (including dangerous and prolific offenders) once you are fully qualified
  • provide pre-sentence reports for courts on people charged with an offence, helping them to decide what sentence should be passed
  • protect the public by collaborating effectively with other agencies in the criminal justice system, such as the police, local authorities, courts, health services, substance misuse services, voluntary agencies and youth offending teams
  • carry out risk assessments and reviews on offenders in order to protect the public from further possible offending
  • manage and enforce community orders made by the courts
  • motivate offenders to change their attitudes and behaviour in order to help reduce further offending
  • provide specialist reports to prison governors and parole review boards that help determine whether a prisoner should be released and, if so, under what conditions
  • work with prisoners sentenced to 12 months or more in custody during and after their sentence, helping them to reintegrate into the community
  • assess prisoners in prison to prepare them for release on licence into the community
  • help offenders serve community sentences to meet the courts' requirements
  • work with victims of violent or sexual crime to ensure their well-being and to make sure that their voices are heard
  • manage approved premises, which provide accommodation for people on bail or probation or offenders on parole
  • attend court, sometimes to testify about written recommendations in reports.


  • When you start your training, you'll be working as a probation services officer (PSO), earning £22,924, plus £3,889 London weighting or £1,100 Market Force Allowance if you're a resident of one of the home counties.
  • Once you've completed your training and qualified as a probation officer (PO), your salary will rise to £30,208, plus allowances (Band 4).
  • The salary scale for senior probation officers is between £37,166 and £41,020 (Band 5).
  • Approved Premises (AP) residential workers get a salary of £22,000 or £26,000 in Greater London, including an unsocial hour enhancement.

You'll receive a range of Civil Service benefits, including a local government pension. A London weighting allowance is added to salaries where applicable.

Income data from The Department of Work and Pensions. Figures are intended as a guide only.

Working hours

You'll work a standard, 37-hour week, although you may occasionally need to work outside of normal office hours.

Holiday entitlement for probation officers is 25-days per year, plus public holidays. Increasing to 30 days after 5 years’ service.

Part-time work and job-share opportunities are available.

What to expect

  • Your usual place of work could be an office, prison, court, or community setting, for example, but you will often travel locally during the working day and may visit clients in their homes.
  • You may also spend time working in approved premises (AP), which provide residential accommodation for offenders and ex-offenders.
  • The work can be emotionally draining at times.

Learn more about life as a probation officer.

You can find further information from:


To qualify as a probation officer, you'll need to successfully complete probation officer training via the Professional Qualification in Probation (PQiP). Training lasts 15 or 21 months depending on your qualifications.

In order to apply for the 15-month training programme, you'll need:

  • relevant experience of working with challenging behaviour
  • a recognised qualification at QCF Level 5 or above (for example an honours degree, HND, foundation degree, diploma of higher education or higher apprenticeship)
  • prior knowledge and understanding in at least three of the four required knowledge modules: the criminal justice system, understanding crime and criminal behaviour, penal policy and the punishment of offenders, and the rehabilitation of offenders.

If you've got relevant experience and a Level 5 qualification or higher, but don't have any previous criminology education, you can apply for the 21-month training programme. You'll spend the first six months of the training completing up to four of the required knowledge modules.

There are various stages to the recruitment process, including an application form, which has a section of competency-based questions, and an assessment centre.

Training combines applied academic learning and practical skills development in order to equip you with the necessary skills and knowledge to assess and manage offenders and prepare reports. During training, you'll be employed as a probation services officer (PSO). On successful completion of the programme, you'll be awarded a Level 5 vocational qualification Diploma in Probation Practice as well as an honours degree.

For more information, see HM Prison & Probation Service's Train to be a Probation Officer.

To work as a probation officer in Scotland (where you'll be known as a criminal justice social worker), you’ll need an undergraduate or postgraduate degree in social work approved by the Scottish Social Services Council (SSSC).

In Northern Ireland, probation officers are qualified social workers employed by the Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI). You'll need to have some experience working with offenders and should apply through UCAS for a degree in social work. See the Northern Ireland Social Care Council (NISCC) for more information.


You'll need to have:

  • a knowledge and understanding of the work of the criminal justice system and the probation service
  • excellent interpersonal skills and the ability to relate to others
  • the ability to persuade and influence others
  • teamwork and collaboration skills
  • a caring attitude
  • case work and report-writing skills
  • planning and organisational skills
  • effective decision-making skills and problem-solving ability
  • motivation and commitment
  • resilience
  • good judgement and the ability to think on your feet
  • an understanding and appreciation of equal opportunities and anti-discriminatory practice.

Work experience

You'll need experience of working with challenging behaviour, which you can get through either paid or voluntary work in a range of settings, including:

  • approved premises
  • prison visiting services
  • victim support services
  • youth offending teams
  • community payback teams
  • outside of the community justice system.

The quality of the experience is more important than the quantity.

Find out more about the different kinds of work experience and internships that are available.


In England and Wales, probation officers are employed by the Probation Service, which forms part of HMPPS, an executive agency, sponsored by the Ministry of Justice. The Probation Service works with every part of the criminal justice sector to support the rehabilitation of offenders, while at the same time protecting the public.

In Scotland, local authority social work departments have responsibility for probation work (known as criminal justice social work). In Northern Ireland, probation work is carried out by PBNI.

Look for vacancies at:

For probation officer training opportunities, see Train to be a Probation Officer.

Specialist recruitment agencies such as Sanctuary Criminal Justice also advertise vacancies.

Professional development

Once qualified, you'll receive on-the-job support and training. In addition, you'll have access to Civil Service Learning, which provides a range of courses and resources for developing skills common to all UK civil servants.

With experience and relevant training, you'll be able to specialise in a particular area of probation work, such as working with sex offenders or working in court.

Some probation officers take advantage of secondments to spend time working for other agencies, such as in youth offending teams or prisons. You can also train to become a manager.

Career prospects

With several years' experience you can apply for promotion to the role of senior probation officer. Senior probation officers manage a team of probation officers and are responsible for their performance. You'll also be involved in risk management, meeting targets and working with other agencies such as the police and prison service.

Promotion beyond main grade depends on your experience and ability and often involves moving to a managerial level, rather than working with offenders. Probation area managers are responsible for the probation service in a designated area and for a team of senior probation officers. They have little or no contact with offenders and are typically involved in the management of risk to the public.

There are, however, opportunities to move sideways and to specialise in different areas of probation work, such as:

  • management of approved premises - providing accommodation for people on bail, people on probation who have problems such as alcoholism or drug addiction, or offenders released on licence from prison pending the end of their sentence
  • prison work - working alongside prison officers and management to help prisoners return to society, often in offender management units
  • approved programme units - working alongside colleagues in other professions offering interactive group work for serving offenders
  • specialist case management teams - working in areas such as drug treatment and testing orders, public protection or sex offending.

Experienced probation officers can work as accredited programme tutors and practice development assessors, supervising trainees.

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