Letting you observe professionals in the workplace work shadowing, also known as job shadowing, is a good first step when it comes to gaining work experience

What is work shadowing?

  • Work shadowing involves observing a professional in their place of work to gain a better understanding of the role.
  • As it brings a job to life, students and graduates often use job shadowing to get a taste for a particular career.
  • Shadowing also allows you to experience how the same role can be different depending on its setting. For example, a nurse who works in an accident and emergency (A&E) department will have a different role from one who works in a small community practice.
  • Work shadowing differs from internships and work placements as it's informal and only lasts for a couple of days. The purpose is to get an insight rather than to gain hands-on, practical experience.

Are there different types of work shadowing?

 The kind of job shadowing you'll undertake is often determined by the time and resources that the employer, or host - the person you'll be shadowing - has available. There are three main types:

  • Observation - Time is spent observing the work of your host, watching what they do on a day-to-day basis. This type of shadowing is the most common and particularly useful to students, recent graduates and career changers looking to gain a greater understanding of a certain role.
  • Regular briefings - Shadowing a host for specific activities over a period of time, you'll receive a mini brief beforehand and a follow-up debrief. Providing short periods of focused activity, this type of work shadowing works well when individuals already work alongside their host - for example, those looking to change departments.
  • Hands-on - A progression of the observation method, hands-on job shadowing is where you start to carry out some of the tasks you've been observing under the supervision of the host. This type of shadowing can be time consuming for the host and so isn't always possible.

Who can I shadow?

Some jobs aren't suitable for shadowing due to the sensitive nature of the work and issues around health, confidentiality and safety. For example, it may not be possible to shadow all professionals in healthcare, law, property and construction, social care and science and pharmaceuticals. To find out which roles are suitable, take a look at our job profiles. In these cases, it's still worthwhile contacting the company involved to see if you can speak to someone in the job away from their workplace. For contact details, see employer profiles.

When trying to discover who you can shadow, careers fairs are also a useful resource. Attend job fairs and speak to representatives to enquire about work shadowing opportunities. If the particular role you had in mind is unsuitable for shadowing, the company may be able to offer a different form of experience, such as virtual work experience.

When looking for opportunities it's important to only choose roles that are of interest to you, as the time spent shadowing is so short. You also need to be aware of how time-consuming the process can be for the person being shadowed, so preparation and a genuine interest in the area are vital.

How do I apply for shadowing opportunities?

Securing a position requires some effort. Opportunities are rarely advertised, so it's up to you to formally approach the individuals or organisations that you're interested in shadowing - discover how to ask employers for work experience. Speculatively send them your CV and cover letter explaining why you'd like to shadow them and how you feel this could benefit you.

Networking is extremely useful in these situations. Use any contacts made through your degree, work placements, internships, volunteering or paid work to help secure your desired role.

Your university careers service may be able to recommend individuals or organisations that are open to approaches for work shadowing.

Periods of work shadowing can be arranged at any time, but the more notice you give to an individual or company, the more likely they are to agree to your request.

What should I expect from a period of work shadowing?

As it's only a short stint of experience it's unlikely you'll get to carry out any tasks, although this will depend on the employer. Instead, expect the person you're shadowing to show you what they do and to explain why things are done in a certain way. You may also be able to sit in on meetings, watch customer or client interactions and there may be time set aside for you to ask questions or speak to other departments.

Make sure you have some questions prepared. The person you're shadowing has to carry out their day-to-day job and won't have lots of time to answer obvious enquiries. Therefore, ensure your questions can't be answered with an internet search or by looking at their website. Instead ask:

  • why did you choose to work for this particular company?
  • how did you get your job?
  • what was the application/interview process like?
  • what do you enjoy about your job?
  • what challenges does the role and sector face?
  • what does a typical career path look like for this role?
  • what would you look for if you were recruiting for this position?
  • If I joined the company what would my first few days/weeks look like?

Prior to your period of work shadowing, make sure you know where you need to be, who you're reporting to and what you should wear. To make the most of the experience, ask yourself, 'what do I want to know about the job the most?' Are there any specific elements of the role that you'd like to see demonstrated?

Will I get paid?

No. As job shadowing opportunities are so short (usually just a day or two) and you don't actually carry out any tasks, it's unpaid.

Where paid work experience is concerned, only those carrying out the role of a worker (for example, interns) are entitled to at least minimum wage.

How do I follow up?

Making a good impression during your work shadowing experience could lead to a more formal placement, or at least a contact for you to call on in the future.

To make sure you're not forgotten, follow up on your experience by writing a thank you email expressing your gratitude for the opportunity. You could call your host directly but be wary of taking up more of their time.

Ask for feedback on the time you spent shadowing your host. Is there anything you could have done differently or better? Are there any areas where you particularly impressed? All feedback will help fine-tune your approach when looking for more formal experience.

Remember to keep in touch with the person you were shadowing. This could be as simple as connecting with them on social media channels such as LinkedIn. They could prove invaluable when looking for a job.

What are the benefits of work shadowing?

The main outcome of work shadowing is an increased knowledge of an area of work or role that you might be considering in the future. It will help you gain an understanding of the workplace and how the role you're interested in fits in with, and supports, the wider business.

Shadowing also builds your confidence, as well as your network of contacts and helps you to develop commercial awareness - a skill sought after by most employers.

Most of all, work shadowing brings a job to life and can help you decide whether it's really for you.

If you've tried work shadowing and would like to gain more in-depth work experience, search internships and work placements.

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